Alimentary lymphoma in cats

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Gastrointestinal (GI) (or alimentary) lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma in cats. Feline GI lymphoma is histologically classified as low, intermediate or high grade according to the size and anaplasticity of the neoplastic lymphoid cells. Gastrointestinal (GI) (or alimentary) lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma in cats1-3 Feline lymphoma presents in a multitude of anatomical forms, with gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma being the most frequent form of presentation.1-3Although the GI form of the disease is most frequently encountered, few reports exist that focus solely on treatment of the GI form.4-7Often the treatment and outcome of GI lymphoma are included with other forms of the disease, making information regarding treatment of feline GI lymphoma difficult to interpret and compare Mediastinal lymphoma is often seen in young cats, with an average age of onset of 5 years old. This type of lymphoma is strongly associated with feline leukemia virus; 80% of affected cats test positive for feline leukemia Feline lymphoma is a malignant cancer of the lymphatic system, the exquisitely structured arrangement of internal organs and tissues that directly or indirectly influences virtually every aspect of a cat's physical existence

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Feline intestinal lymphoma is often referred to as an alimentary form of this cancer. Alimentary affects the digestive system and lymph nodes around that area. Experts believe there is no link between this form and feline leukemia. If a cat is leukemia free, there is a chance the cat will recover after undergoing chemotherapy treatments Feline lymphoma or lymphosarcoma is the most common form of cancer in cats. It's highly treatable but incurable; eventually the disease will be fatal. When your cat has this disease, it's important to recognize and understand the end stages, and to know what choices to make for your cat's sake Twenty-three retrospective biopsy specimens from feline intra-abdominal lymphomas including tumours affecting the gastrointestinal tract, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen were immunohistochemically labelled with monoclonal antibodies to CD79a (B-cell phenotype) and CD3 (T-cell phenotype) Cats with B-cell lymphoma (n ¼ 19) consisted of 11 males and 8 females; the mean age was 12.2 years (SD 4.0 years; range, 2-18 years). There were 120 cats included in the study; 4 cats (cat Nos. 103, 115, 116, and 117) had concurrent B-cell lymphoma and mucosal T-cell lymphoma. Only 3 cats wer Feline alimentary (gastrointestinal) lymphoma is the most common cancer diagnosed in domestic cats. The most common subtype is known as enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) type II, or small cell lymphoma, and accounts for 10-20% of all tumors with approximately 200 cases per 100,000 cats reported each year

Currently, the most frequently diagnosed form of feline lymphoma is the alimentary or intestinal form. Patients often present with a history of reduced appetite, intermittent vomiting and sometimes a palpable mass in the abdomen. Diagnosis is made on biopsy, either by fine needle aspirate, core biopsy or surgical biopsy Practical relevance Accurate diagnosis of the distinct subtypes of alimentary lymphoma (AL) that occur in cats is important as there are major differences between them in clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis. Unlike intermediate- and high-grade alimentary lymphoma (I/HGAL) and large granular lymphocyte lymphoma (LGLL), which can often be diagnosed by aspiration cytology, full. Most cats with mediastinal lymphoma are young and positive for feline leukemia virus Fine needle aspirate from a cat with alimentary lymphoma Low-grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL) is a neoplastic variant of feline lymphomainvolving the intestinal tract. Because it can be confused clinically with irritable bowel disease, diagnosis often requires intestinal biopsy or ultrasonographic confirmation of disease

Alimentary (intestinal) lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma in cats. The average patient is a senior cat (9-13 years) with a history of vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, inappetance or any combination of the above Alimentary lymphoma is one of the most commonly diagnosed neoplasms of the cat. The incidence of this disease has increased significantly over the past 15 years during the post-feline leukemia era. Despite the common prevalence of this disease, appropriate diagnosis and treatment can be challenging. There are two main forms of feline alimentary.

High grade (large cell), which is more aggressive or low grade (small cell) and cats with high-grade lymphoma can get sick within days to weeks whereas cats with low-grade lymphoma get sick over weeks to months. Symptoms of alimentary lymphosarcoma may include Alimentary lymphoma- It occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. It can become fatal if the tumor is situated near the small or large intestine, since it can restrict the passage of bowel and pose health hazards. Symptoms- Gastrointestinal lymphoma accounts for approximately 5% of cases and is less easily diagnosed than the more common. Low grade lymphoma is a cancer that can originate in any area of the body where lymph nodes are present.Unlike the high grade lymphoma, the low grade lymphoma has a slower evolution and typically, the prognosis is more favorable in cats that are diagnosed with this type of lymphoma Lymphoma is a very common blood-borne cancer in cats. It affects various anatomic locations throughout the body, most commonly the gastrointestinal tract. Once diagnosed, treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or surgery often leads to an improvement in quality of life - at least temporarily

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  1. Lymphoma accounts for one third of all cancers developed by cats. When the mediastinal lymph nodes become infiltrated with lymphoma, a mass is apparent in the mediastinum and a cancerous fluid fills the chest, restricting breathing. The fluid can be tapped but it will be back without treatment
  2. ation of ultrasound-guided aspirates and biopsy specimens (18 cats), histologic exa
  3. Lymphoma is one of the most common malignancies in cats, and gastrointestinal or GI lymphoma in cats is an increasingly common problem. As with all varieties of this cancer, GI lymphoma is a disease of the lymphatic system, and targets cells called T-or B-lymphocytes
  4. Cats with alimentary lymphoma also have abnormal bowel movements. Symptoms could range from struggling to pass stool to uncontrollable diarrhea. Again, constipation and diarrhea will probably occur at some point in your cat's life. However, it shouldn't happen on a regular basis

Diagnosis and Treatment of Feline Alimentary Lymphomas

Alimentary lymphoma is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The lymph fluid is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to different cells in the cat's body while collecting metabolic waste, absorbing fat from the intestinal tract, and removing tissue debris and other infectious agents Occasionally, cats can have hyperglobulinemia due to mild polyclonal gammopathy; monoclonal gammopathy is rare. Hypoalbuminemia is rare in cats with ID, so this finding should raise the suspicion for lymphoma (S LSA or LLSA). obalamin (vitamin 12) deficiency is common in cats with chronic gastrointestinal disease, and may play a role in intestina Feline Lymphoma Diagnosis and Staging The various anatomical forms of feline lymphoma (mediastinal, alimentary, renal, multicentric and extranodal) have been well described. Alimentary--characterised by gastric, intestinal, or mesenteric lymph node involvement, this is one of the more common forms of feline lymphoma

Alimentary. Another type that affects the intestines, alimentary lymphoma is a slower-progressing, low-grade version, and also appears mostly in older cats. Cutaneous. As with the previous two types, cutaneous lymphoma affects older cats, and is a disease of the skin, or cutaneous layer Feline lymphoma is one of the most common types of cancers in cats. According to an extensive study carried out in Switzerland, the mean average of developing lymphoma in cats is 8.5 years, although it is more frequent in younger cats and being male is a contributing factor Feline alimentary SCL shows some histological parallels to monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL) in people (i.e., formally known as enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma Type 2 (EATL Type 2)), such as a monomorphic infiltration of the intestinal mucosa with small to medium lymphocytes of predominantly T-cell origin. This study aimed to evaluate the agreement between microscopic and molecular testing for differentiating feline intestinal bowel disease and small cell alimentary lymphoma in duodenal endoscopic biopsies. METHODS. Four different diagnostic methods (cytology, histology, immunohistochemistry and clonality) were sequentially applied to 77 cases of. Feline alimentary SCL shows some histological parallels to monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL) in people (i.e., formally known as enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma.

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Introduction. The stomach and the large intestine (LI) Large intestine: neoplasia are rare sites for neoplasia in cats; the small intestine (SI) Small intestine: neoplasia is the most common site to be affected in the alimentary tract. Lymphoma Lymphoma is the most common tumor, with adenocarcinoma Adenoma / adenocarcinoma the second most common. Oral cavity tumors (squamous cell carcinoma. (1996) reported 13 cases of alimentary lymphoma, of which seven were B cell and six T cell in lineage. Callanan et al. (1996) described two cases of alimentary B-cell lymphoma. Large surveys by Gabor, Gabor) included a report on 57 cats with alimentary lymphoma, most of which were of the B-cell type. Burnett et al Feline gastrointestinal lymphoma. This is a spectrum of diseases including low grade lymphoma, high grade lymphoma and large granular lymphocyte lymphoma (LGL). This disease can, therefore, vary from something which cats can live with for some time without illness to a rapidly progressive and fatal condition

Alimentary lymphoma in cats and dogs - PubMe

  1. Small cell alimentary lymphoma and nasal lymphoma offer compelling cases for choosing treatment, based on their long average survival times. Other lymphomas have lower response rates: only 30% of cats achieve full remission with alimentary forms versus 52% in all other locations (remission is the disappearance of signs and symptoms)
  2. Evans et al. Comparison of endoscopic and full thickness biopsy specimens for diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease and alimentary tract lymphoma in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 229: 1447-1450. Washabau et al. Endoscopic, biopsy, and histopathologic guidelines for the evaluation of gastrointestinal inflammation in companion animals
  3. extra-nodal. A final type, alimentary lymphoma (AL) tar-gets the gastrointestinal tract with variable involvement of extra-intestinal sites including lymph nodes, liver, spleen [3, 4, 7, 8]. Not only is this the most common anatomical form of lymphoma (50 to 75%), it is also the most common alimentary neoplasia in cats [1-5, 8-19]
  4. Lymphoma and retroviruses (non-alimentary) Lymphoma is considered to be the most common cancer in the cat. Lymphoma can affect cats of any age group and any breed. There seems to be biphasic occurrence with a peak in young cats and then another peak in middle aged to slightly older cats
  5. Abstract: Lymphoma is the most common feline malignant tumor, and the alimentary form is the most common seen form. Alimentary form in the cat typically involves lesions of the small intestine, stomach, mesenteric lymph nodes, and liver. The disease is often reported in cats between 1 and 20 (mean 13 years) years
  6. ocentesis, followed by laparotomy. A 10 years old British shorthair spayed female cat Tara (2.8 kg) was presented with a remarkable abdo
  7. Feline patients with the low-grade alimentary lymphoma can have a solitary or multifocal mass or have diffuse gastrointestinal infiltration, with or without mesenteric lymph node, renal, spleen, or liver involvement. Cats with alimentary lymphoma tend to be older (>7 years), FeLV-test negative (70%), and not anaemic

Types of Feline Lymphoma. Alimentary form (occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, abdomen and surrounding lymph nodes). The most common form of feline lymphoma, this disease usually occurs in cats between the ages of 9-13 years of age and is the least likely to be linked to feline leukemia. Symptoms of this form of feline lymphoma include The responders were 6/11 (54%) cats with multicentric lymphoma, 5/12 (41%) cats with alimentary lymphoma, and only 2/9 (22%) cats with renal lymphoma [Fox]. In another study of 23 cats, only anatomical location had a significant influence on remission duration [Simon]. Stage of disease. Feline lymphoma is staged according to a five-part scheme

Introduction. Cats have a higher incidence of lymphoma than dogs (20-30% of all tumors in cats). Lymphoid neoplasia accounts for an incidence of 200 per 100,000 cats at risk and is 90% of all feline hemopoietic neoplasms. Lymphoma can originate in any organ or tissue containing lymphocytes: Alimentary Alimentary tract: neoplasia Alimentary (Gastrointestinal): Alimentary lymphoma affects the gastrointestinal tract and its surrounding lymph nodes.It is the most common type of lymphoma in cats and is often associated with a FeLV negative status. Most alimentary lymphoma cat patients are 9 to 13 years old with a history of weight loss, lack of appetite, vomiting, and/or diarrhea Feline leukemia virus infection—pets inconsistently test positive during illness (for example, 85% are positive with the mediastinal form, 45% with the kidney form, 20% with the multicentric form, and 15% with the alimentary (intestinal) forms of lymphoma test positive on FeLV test); older cats with lymphoma are usually FeLV negative, while. The alimentary form includes lymphomas that are localized in the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and/or mesenteric lymph nodes.â -3 Unlike other forms of feline lymphoma, alimentary lymphoma usually originates in B lymphocytes, and occurs most often in cats that are feline leukemia virus negative. 1,2Alimentary lymphoma may be. Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphocyte cells, which play an important and integral role in the body's defenses in the immune system. Learn more about the symptoms, causes and treatment options for lymphoma in cats, below

Cats with the alimentary form of lymphoma often present with weight loss, rough hair coat, loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhea, although vomiting and diarrhea are commonly absent as symptoms. The tumor can also cause life-threatening blockage of the intestine. Cats with the mediastinal form often have respiratory distress and fluid in the. Alimentary lymphoma in cats and dogs. @article{Gieger2011AlimentaryLI, title={Alimentary lymphoma in cats and dogs.}, author={T. Gieger}, journal={The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice}, year={2011}, volume={41 2}, pages={ 419-32 } EPIDEMIOLOGY. Alimentary lymphoma is the most common anatomical form of lymphoma in cats identified in most studies. 1, 17 - 20 The declining influence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) worldwide has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of alimentary lymphoma relative to other anatomical forms because alimentary lymphoma has the weakest association with FeLV antigenemia Practical relevance Accurate diagnosis of the distinct subtypes of alimentary lymphoma (AL) that occur in cats is important as there are major differences between them in clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis. Unlike intermediate- and high-grade alimentary lymphoma (I/HGAL) and large granular lymphocyte lymphoma (LGLL), which can often.

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Mahony OM, Moore AS, Cotter SM, et al. Alimentary lymphoma in cats: 28 cases (1988-1993). JAVMA 1995;207(12):1593-1598. Penninck DG, Moore AS, Tidwell AS, et al. Ultrasonography of alimentary lymphosarcoma in the cat ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF FELINE ALIMENTARY LYMPHOMA. Address correspondence to Dr. Amy M. Grooters, Clydesdale Hall, University of Missouri, 379 East Campus Drive, Columbia, Missouri, 65211. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in seven cats with intestinal lymphoma and four cats with gastric lymphoma Lymphoma is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in cats. It is a cancer of the lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and is found throughout many areas of the body which include: lymph nodes, spleen, liver, gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow The alimentary lymphoma is one of the most prominent neoplasms within feline oncology, as it is a relatively aggressive tumor and, in most cases, of difficult treatment [9]. The National Cancer Institute Working Formulation (NCIWF) classified the feline alimentary lymphoma as high, intermediate, and low grades, the latter usually affecting the. Various protocols are described in the literature. Three examples are provided below. Note that oral cytotoxic drugs cannot be split or divided and should not be crushed. It is also important that patients are not overdosed with cytotoxic medications. Ideally, for these reasons a compounding / reformulating pharmacy should be used to match patient requirements exactly; there are now companies.

Feline low-grade alimentary lymphoma: an emerging entity

  1. Lymphoma, a white blood cell cancer, is one of dogs and cats ' most prevalent cancers. It may occur in both lymph nodes and organs such as spleen, liver, intestinal tract, and skin. In dogs, non-painful enlargement of the lymph nodes of the body is the most prevalent presentation-typically under the jaw, in front of the shoulders and behind.
  2. Dogs diagnosed with lymphoma aren't so lucky. Owners can spend about $5,000 on treatments that would extend their pet's life for about a year or two with little hope of a cure
  3. Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that affects the lymphocyte cells, a type of white blood cell that is an essential component of the body's defenses in the immune system. Lymphoma in cats is responsible for 90 percent of blood cancers and 33 percent of all tumors. Cats suffer from lymphoma more than any other animal. It is also the most common cause of hypercalcemia in cats, a condition.
  4. Lymphoma (which is also known as malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma) is the single most common cancer that affects cats. Lymphoma is a solid tumour of a type of white blood cell (lymphocyte) that is involved in immune responses. Alimentary lymphoma - affecting the stomach and/or intestines)
  5. Cat. FeLV is an important cause of lymphoma in the cat. Following the introduction of widespread FeLV testing and vaccination the most common type of lymphoma affecting cats is alimentary when previously it had been mediastinal and multicentric forms. Only 10% of lymphoma cases in cats are now associated with FeLV, whereas it used to be 70%

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of endoscopic biopsy (EB) specimens for diagnosis of alimentary tract lymphosarcoma in cats.. Design—Prospective study.. Animals—22 cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or alimentary tract lymphosarcoma.. Procedures—Endoscopic biopsy specimens were obtained during endoscopy of the stomach and duodenum immediately prior to laparotomy or. Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms are uncommon in dogs and cats, with gastric tumors representing <1% and intestinal tumors <10% of overall neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific etiologic agents for GI neoplasia have not been identified. The increased risk of Belgian Shepherds for gastric carcinoma, and of Siamese cats for intestinal adenocarcinoma and lymphoma, may reflect genetic predispositions Feline Gastointestinal Lymphoma An Overview Dr. Phyllis Glawe General Information: · Lymphoma is the most common feline neoplasm accounting for one-third of all malignancies · Recent studies indicate the gastrointestinal (also known as alimentary) form is the most common anatomical site in the cat affected by lymphoma Differentiating IBD from enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type II (small cell) in cats is extremely difficult. Both conditions are most commonly diagnosed in middle aged to older cats of any breed and sex. The most common clinical signs with both diseases include vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss and changes in appetite

Feline Lymphoma Lymphoma is a cancer of the cells of the immune system called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are present throughout the body, so cats can develop lymphoma in multiple organs. Lymphoma is classified by location of the disease (e.g. gastrointestinal tract, nasal cavity, mediastinal) and the size of th Feline intestinal lymphoma (also known as feline gastrointestinal lymphoma) is the most common form of lymphoma in cats. It is most common in older cats, at least nine years of age. It is slightly more common in males than in females. Domestic short hair breeds have a higher incidence. Sometimes there is an actual mass that forms in the. Alimentary lymphoma strikes the digestive tract. Mediastinal lymphoma impacts the kitty's chest area. The lymphatic system transfers nutrients throughout the body and aids in disposal of wastes from the blood, which means lymphoma can affect nearly any organ of the cat's body, from the thymus gland to the spine History. Lymphoma in cats is an effect of the attack of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections; an infection in the immune system as well as certain types of medicines application. Apart from these, genetic factors also play an important role in being the cause of the disease, esp. in Siamese, Burmese and Manx cat breeds Lymphoma in cats, a disease that affects this tissue, can cause damage to a number of organs. This cancer normally affects cats around ten years of age. They include the alimentary, mediastinal, and multicentric forms. The alimentary form affects the digestive tract and surrounding lymph nodes. The mediastinal form affects the chest, thymus.

Managing feline gastrointestinal lymphoma (Proceedings

Feline Lymphoma Caregivers Guide, a guide for people who are faced with this type of feline cancer. We offer hope, treatment options, veterinary resources, actual ongoing case histories, support and anything else you may need to help guide you through the process of dealing with feline lymphoma Siamese cats have an increased risk for some types of intestinal cancer. No specific cause has been identified for most intestinal tumors, although alimentary lymphoma in cats is believed to be caused by the feline leukemia virus, even in cats that test negative for the virus Lymphoma in cats has been acknowledged for many years now, with research present in the 1960's and beyond, but there is yet to be an apparent understanding of the illness. Despite this, it seems that cats who are infected by Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) or Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) are more likely to be associated with cases of. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate response to chemotherapy in cats with alimentary lymphoma and to determine factors associated with survival time. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 28 cats with alimentary lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy. RESULTS: In all cats, the diagnosis had been established by means of cytologic or histologic examination of ultrasound-guided aspirates and biopsy. Is there a link between tobacco smoke exposure and the development of alimentary lymphoma in cats? Ellie Mardell, Corresponding Author. ellie@felinebetter.co.uk; Feline Better, Chester, UK. email: ellie@felinebetter.co.uk Search for more papers by this author. Ellie Mardell

Treatment of Feline Gastrointestinal Small-Cell Lymphoma

Alimentary lymphoma mainly affects the gastrointestinal tract. Causes of lymphoma in cats Although studies in the area are still ongoing and not all the causes are clear, it is known that feline leukemia virus (FeLV) may be involved in the appearance of lymphoma in cats [3] Alimentary lymphoma is the second most frequent and accounts for 5% to 7% of canine cases. 3, 6 As in the cat, alimentary lymphoma may occur either multifocally or diffusely throughout the submucosa and lamina propria of the small intestine in the dog. Lymphocytic plasmacytic inflammation may be associated with alimentary lymphoma, which some.

Lymphoma in Cats VCA Animal Hospita

Lymphoma is the most common cancer in the cat, causing 33% of cat tumours (1). It is sometimes called lymphosarcoma. Cancer is caused by a mutation in the DNA of a cell causing abnormal cell function or growth. In the case of lymphoma, this is caused by an abnormal proliferation of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell The alimentary form of feline lymphoma will develop in the digestive system and the lymph nodes around it. About half of all alimentary lymphomas are found in the small intestine, although they can develop in any area in the digestive system. Generally a mass can be felt in the abdomen. The symptoms associated with this type of lymphoma are. Cats are unique in that feline lymphoma often starts in atypical locations, such as in their nasal passages, spinal cord, kidneys, or eyes. For most species, including humans and dogs, lymphoma originates most often in the lymph nodes. Cats of any breed and any age can get lymphoma, but it's most common in cats who are 10-12 years old

Abstract : This article describes the ultrasonographical and postmortem findings of alimentary tract lymphoma lymphoma Subject Category: Diseases, Disorders, and Symptoms see more details in a 12-year-old cat in Brazil brazil Subject Category: Geographic Entities see more details [date not given] Russell KJ, Beatty JA, Dhand N, et al. Feline low-grade alimentary lymphoma: how common is it? Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery . 2012; 14: 910-912. Awaysheh A, Wilcke J, Elvinger F, et al. Evaluation of supervised machine learning algorithms to distinguish between inflammatory bowel disease and alimentary lymphoma in cats What was lymphoma in cats previously associated with? - Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) → young, mediastinal fomr - accounted for ~ 60-70% of cases - affected cats were usually younger (4-6 years of age) What is the current estimate for cases in cats? Why? 14-25% of cases due to Vx

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LYMPHOMA IN DOGS AND CATS Mary Kay Blake, DVM, DACVIM-Oncology VCA West Coast Specialty and Emergency Animal Hospital May 21, 2017 GRADE IN CATS •Alimentary lymphoma: mucosal low grade T cell most common (MST 30mos) •Hodgkin's lymphoma less aggressive. TREATMENT IN CATS Differentiation of feline inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma can be challenging, and some clinicians argue that it is unnecessary because prognosis and treatment are similar. Differentiation of feline inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma can be challenging and some clinicians argue that it is unnecessary since prognosis and treatment are similar Alimentary lymphoma is one of the most frequently diagnosed gastrointestinal cancers in small animals, especially in cats. Alimentary lymphoma can occur in the upper and in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract as cancerous infiltrations or tumours Is there a link between tobacco smoke exposure and the development of alimentary lymphoma in cats? 04 Apr 2020. Mardell, E. Lymphoma is the most common tumour affecting cats, and the incidence of this tumour type appears to be higher in cats than in any other species. Despite this, the potential causes of lymphoma, and the risk factors.