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Moodle aiken format true/false

Moodle in English: True/False Aiken Format

by Ravi Makhija - Friday, 8 May 2009, 3:44 AM. Hi Darren, Far as I know, Aiken format doesn't officially support importing True/False questions or Multiple Choice questions with Multiple Answers. On the other hand you can emulate True/False with Aiken format like so: Q: The sky is blue. A. True The Aiken format is a very simple way of creating multiple choice questions using a clear human-readable format in a text file. (The GIFT format has many more options and perhaps is less prone to errors, but doesn't look as straight-forward as AIKEN. ) The question must be all on one line Aiken Format Create a Test Bank from Word If you want to create a number of multiple choice or true/false questions, an easy way to post them in Moodle is to import them from a Word document using the Aiken format. If you need to add just a few questions, it's easier to enter them directly into Moodle without using an intermediate format

Aiken format - Moodl

Note: If you are have only Multiple Choice and True/False questions, and your goal is to import the questions to Moodle, you may prefer to use the Aiken format for formatting questions. Aiken formatted text documents can be imported directly to Moodle without moving through Respondus. See Import Quiz Questions to Moodle Using the Aiken Format Change the file format as plain text and click save. In the file conversion menu, click other encoding and choose Unicode (UTF-8) and click OK. Now go back to the 'import questions from file' page in the quiz link for Moodle and choose Aiken format. Scroll down and click choose file to upload the plain text file that we converted from the. GIFT format allows someone to use a text editor to write multiple-choice, true-false, short answer, matching missing word and numerical questions in a simple format that can be imported. The GIFT format is also an export file format available in Question bank. The format has been developed within the Moodle Community but other software may support it to a greater or lesser degree Multiple Choice questions à Aiken Format (Check Aiken Format Template Document) True/False Questions à Gift Format (1+1=2 {T}) Choose format to be Moodle XML Format, make sure you are importing to the correct category within the General section and untick: Get category from file, Get context from file then choose the file.

True/false. Two answer tags are given, one which is true, and one which is false. The fraction attribute of the answer tag identifies which option is correct (100) and which is false (0). Feedback is supported. The following example shows the format when true is the correct answer and false is wrong AON -This format is the same as the missing word format, except it creates matching questions from the multiple choice questions. Please note that from Moodle 1.8 it will no longer be part of the standard Moodle. Character encoding. It is important that the imported file is encoded in the UTF-8 standard Tested under PHP 5.1.4, MySQL 5.0.18 on Linux 2.4.21-50.ELsmp #1 SMP Tue May 8 17:18:29 EDT 2007 i68

Aiken Format for Moodle Quiz Uploads The Moodle Support team can upload your multiple choice and true/false questions for exams and quizzes when you provide the questions in the Aiken upload format. Aiken is a very specific text format that allows Moodle to parse your questions and answers. Moodle does accommodate other formats for questions How to Create True False Questions in moodle .How to add Multiple True False question in a Moodle How to add Multiple True False question in a single Moodle.. True and False Questions in Moodle more content at https://educationalresearchtechniques.com The Aiken format allows you to easily export multiple choice quiz questions from a Word or other text document, into Moodle. For example, If you want to re-use a paper handout of a multiple choice quiz in your Moodle-based online course, the Aiken format may be perfect for you. The Aiken format is a very simple way of creating multiple choice. True/False: For True/False questions, the brackets contain either a T or F indicating the correct answer. It is recommended that you use the Aiken format for importing True/False questions. For information regarding Aiken format, see Quiz: Importing Questions in Aiken Format. Essay: The brackets should be left empty ( { } )

2. On the course content list, point to a test and click edit. 3. On the right-hand panel, under Add question (1), click Import (2). 4. From the Type (3) drop-down list, choose the question format (i.e., AIKEN or GIFT ). 5. In the Data text area, type your questions according to the available examples (4). 6 See Aiken format document for formatting Multiple Choice & True/False Word files for import into Moodle or import Blackboard format Test Banks from 3rd party 12. Content Import and Export To & From Blackboard Learn and It is being discarded. // This is no longer needed but might still be called by default.php. // This format is not able to export categories. // Only export multichoice questions. // Do not export multichoice multi questions. // Aiken format is not able to handle question with more than 26 answers This format also requires UTF-8. Missing word format. Similar to GIFT, this format is only used for multiple choice questions and short answer questions. Moodle XML format. This format can import multiple choice,true/false, short answer, numerical response, matching, and essay questions. It must be encoded in UTF-8 and it requires a tag and a tag

Moodle: Bank Soal Format Menggunakan Formal Aiken. Format Aiken adalah cara yang sangat sederhana untuk menciptakan pertanyaan pilihan ganda menggunakan format terbaca-manusia yang jelas. (Format GIFT memiliki lebih banyak pilihan dan mungkin lebih tahan terhadap kesalahan, tapi tidak terlihat sebagai sederhana seperti AIKEN. question in the Moodle Question bank to fix the problem (see next slide). One document can contain multiple questions. To do this, leave an open line between the previous question 'ANSWER:' line and the question line of the next question. The same format applies for the True/False questions Pages in category Questions The following 124 pages are in this category, out of 124 total

You can further edit your questions and answer choices in Moodle once imported. These instructions follow the Aiken format. Note: There is another Format called GIFT, which supports the import of multiple-choice, true or false and fill-in-the-blank and essay type questions, but it is not as straightforward as Aiken The AIKEN format needs the VERSION Param in the txt file with questions yep- I tried True/False and Short Ans type and they both worked! emmmm OK - Progress! As I said in response to the previous message I was unable to reproduce the problem in Moodle 2.3.2 and for me the Aiken import is working as it should The Aiken format lets you create multiple-choice or true-false questions that you can save as a plain text file and import into a Moodle unit. Refer to the sample Aiken format questions file. Refer to the section Import questions in the guide. View Guide View Sample Aiken format questions fil This feature saves the instructor time by cutting out the need to recreate questions within Moodle. [Note: Aiken format is only compatible with multiple choice or true/false questions. For all other question types, use the GIFT format.] For more information on Gift Format, see: Quiz Activity 1.4: Importing Questions in GIFT Format [Faculty

GIFT format Moodle XML Format (using Moodle Quiz in MS Word) The question True/False (Fig. 4) Format: Question {TRUE} or else Question {FALSE} The tool True Statement (Fig. 3) - for the answer to the question Yes. And False Statement (Fig. 3) - for the answer to the question No Re: Importing quiz questions from LXR to Moodle 3.3. Make your Aiken file. Import it into a throw-away Moodle course. Export all the questions again, as either Gift or Moodle XML format. Edit that file, to set things you cannot control in Aiken format (e.g. question name) True / False: jawaban benar / salah 8. IMPORT KUIS DENGAN FORMAT AIKEN Format Aiken merupakan salah satu format kuis yang hanya mendukung Langkah-langkah untuk import file pertanyaan quiz ke moodle: Klik Import, kemudian pilih Aiken dari menu File Format. Selanjutnya upload fil The Moodle GIFT format allows to create different types of questions using a text editor. You can create multiple-choice, true-false, short answer, matching missing word and numerical questions easily. Once done, just save the text file and upload it to Moodle either into a question category or into a lesson Brief Description. The Aiken format lets you create multiple-choice or true-false questions using a simple, human-readable format that you can save as a plain text file and import into a Moodle. . Download Instruction. Download Aiken Format Guide. Download Sample Template. Download CBT Sample Question Format

  1. may need to modify a Word file to put questions in the Aiken format. GIFT format — The native Moodle question format, which uses a variety of symbols. It can be used to create multiple-choice, short-answer, true/false, and matching questions in a plan-text file. Hot Potatoes format — Format of quizzes created with the free Hot-Potatoes quiz.
  2. The Aiken format lets you create multiple-choice or true-false questions using a simple, human-readable format that you can save as a plain text file and import into a Moodle course. Write Questions in the Aiken Format Write your questions in a word-processing application (e.g., MS Word) or a..
  3. B. Import a Word document in Aiken format. correctly. Note: Blackboard format nearly always works, if Moodle doesn't. If you want to create a number of multiple choice or true/false questions, an easy way to post them in Moodle is to import them from a Word document using the Aiken format. If you need to add just a fe
  4. Marking Exams. When you use the Moodle Quiz Tool, a lot of the question types are automatically graded for you. (Multiple Choice, True & False, Matching) However, you may want to use Short Answer or Essay Questions in your exam, which will have to be graded manually
  5. Moodle is used as an online assessment tool. It allows you to create different types of questions with different scoring and feedback options. But if you are..

Format Questions for Respondus or Studymate UMass

  1. Adapun format-format yang didukun Moodle dalam pembuatan soal dalam bentuk file adalah sebagai berikut: Aiken format Blackboard Blackboard V6+ Course Test Manager format Embedded Answers (Cloze) Membuat Quiz di e-learning.smuha-yog.sch.id 9 Examview GIFT format Hot Potatoes format Learnwise format Missing word format Moodle XML format WebCT.
  2. Choose the correct file format from the list at the top, then click the Choose a file button and locate the question file you want to add. Note: The simplest format to use is the Aiken format, which utilizes a .txt file containing formatted questions. To read about how to format Aiken questions, see MoodleDocs: Aiken format. 5
  3. The first is AIKEN format. This format does not allow any question types other then multiple choice and true and false questions to be imported. The other .doc format that can be imported is Moodle GIFT. This format will import multiple choice, true and false, fill-in, and matching questions, but you have to include coded instructions in the.

1) add score per m/c item to the Aiken spec. 2) update the Moodle code we're using to parse that score. 3) update the Quiz module to use that data when creating the m/c question node. I would be reluctant to do #3 without #1-2, and those require getting Moodle to make changes. Though maybe they're interested in doing that GIFT is the most comprehensive import format available for importing Moodle quiz questions from a text file. It was designed to be an easy method for teachers writing questions as a text file. It supports Multiple-Choice, True-False, Short Answer, Matching and Numerical questions, as well as insertion of a _____ for the missing word format text files and Moodle formats. 4.1. Using the Gift Format The GIFT format uses a text editor to write multiple-choice, true-false, short answer, matching, missing word and numerical questions in a simple format that can be imported to Moodle. Step 1: Open the Notepad application to save questions in the appropriate format [UTF-8

How to Import Quiz questions by Using Aiken format

  1. a file. Moodle accepts multiple formats that book publishers use. If you have multiple choice questions in a MS Word document, you may adjust it to . Aiken format. to import. The Aiken format is easy to use but is particular about spacing and capitalization in order to work
  2. The teacher can import multiple-choice questions to a Moodle course as a text file. You can write questions in the Notepad program. Save the file in txt format and choose encoding: UTF-8. Below are the instructions: 1. Import multiple-choice questions in Aiken format 2. Import multiple question types in GIFT format 1
  3. Preguntas en formato GIFT y AIKEN para importar a Moodle. GIFT es el formato disponible más completo para importar preguntas de cuestionario a partir de un archivo de texto. Admite preguntas de opción múltiple, verdadero-falso, respuesta corta, preguntas de emparejamiento y preguntas numéricas, así como la inserción de un espacio en.
  4. Import Quiz Questions to Moodle Using the Aiken Format The Aiken format lets you create multiple-choice or true-false questions using a simple, human-readable format that you can save as a plain text file and import into a Moodle course. Write Questions in the Aiken Format
  5. The Aiken format lets you create multiple-choice or true-false questions using a simple, human-readable format that you can save as a plain text file and import into a Moodle course. Respondus is Question Bank and Proctoring software. Respondus 4 is the name of the Question Bank tool while the proctoring tools are the LRespondus Lockdown.

The Aiken format lets you create multiple-choice or true-false questions using a simple, human-readable format that you can save as a plain text file and import into a Moodle course. Write Questions in the Aiken Format GIFT format allows you to write multiple-choice, true-false, short answer, matching missing word and numerical questions in a simple format that can be imported into Moodle. (The GIFT format is also an export file format available inside the Moodle Question Bank.) Creating Moodle Quiz Questions in GIFT Format Moodle's quiz tool includes many question types including true/false, Choice, True/False or Essay. To get information about this field, use the blue question mark next to the drop The Aiken format is simplest for multiple choice questions, but every detail, such as spacing, capitalization, etc True/False Multiple Choice Multiple Answers Short Answers Matching Missing Word(s) Numerical Embedded Questions Can include graphics AIKEN GIFT XML Compile in Moodle-compatible format Avoid, due to high chance performance. Use MA instead. Be mindful of formatting concerns

GIFT format - Moodl

Aiken Format Text File Modified - The Modified Aiken format delimited text file export is identical to the regular Aiken format text file except the correct answers are identified with asterisks. Modified Aiken also supports only multiple choice and true false questions. You can view a sample file here: Sample Export - Modified Aiken Format. Importing Quiz Questions from Word into a question bank - Multiple Choice and True/False 1. Write out your questions in Word according to the format below. Multiple choice -- Note that the numbers are followed by periods. That each answer is a capital letter followed by a period and the answers begin with a capital Moodle recommends using Moodle XML format, as it allows the most comprehensive quiz data to be imported. Importing questions from native Moodle format or from text files: Comprehensive formats: These formats support multiple-choice, true-false, short answer, matching, missing word, cloze, numerical and essay questions

2. Choose Save as and save your Word (.doc or .docx) as a Plain Text (.txt) file format 3. On Moodle, when editing a quiz you have already created, click Import 4. Choose the Aiken format and UPLOAD your file 5. Now you can check all your questions in the bank and add them to the quiz. Step-by-Step: 1. Open your old quiz in Word 2 @digidoug shows how to create Quizzes the easy way (Aiken Format) Joseph Thibault - April 27, 2010 The Aiken format is a simple way to create Multiple Choice and True/False question types in Moodle True/False From the 'Create new question' drop menu, select True/False. Make sure you have the correct category listed 1. Enter a name for the question - the name should be descriptive of the question. 2. Enter either a true or false statement. 3. If you wish to include an image you can do so, th questions in Aiken format or if you are using a publisher's test bank, your next step is to import the questions into their respective categories. Import a File in Aiken Format Once your document has been formatted and saved as a text file, you can import it into Moodle. 1. On the course main page, click on the admi

Article - Create Quiz on Moodle: How-T

  1. Multiple choice, true false, fill-in-the-blanks, long answer/essay, short answer, order, matching and multiple answer (checklist & statement) are supported. Standard Text File - GIFT: Use this option to create a GIFT (General Import Format Technology) delimited text file compatible with import to Moodle and Adobe Captivate
  2. - CLONE -BB quiz true false questions all come in as true - Moodle import of BB pools doesn't recognize short answer question type - My moodle page does not work - Replace Aiken format in core; Improvement - Bring back.
  3. - Detect broken iconv before install/upgrade (previously Can't install Moodle 2.2 on MAMP) - SCORM report - basic plugin needs to be added to standard core list - Bad string in the upgrade of very old quiz attempts to 2.1 - Aiken format not generating the question name properl
  4. Play this game to review Instructional Technology. MOODLE full form is: Preview this quiz on Quizizz. MOODLE full form is: MOODLE LMS. DRAFT. 10th - Professional Development. 3 times. Instructional Technology. 93% average accuracy. an hour ago. mandar_12453. 0. Save. Edit. Edit. MOODLE LMS DRAFT. an hour ago
  5. Moodle can auto-mark answers to single answer quiz questions. Quiz questions are held in a Question bank and may be shared, re-used, or modified later. Quiz questions may be written right in Moodle or existing Quizzes may be imported (the simplest format is Aiken)
Importing Data from Other Test Programs - Delimited Text

Moodle XML format - MoodleDoc

Instructors and students can communicate and collaborate using Moodle Forums. Instructors can create discussion topics or, depending on the forum type, allow students to originate topics. Course members can then post replies, and subscribe if they want to receive an email copy of each post made to a particular forum A number of file formats are supported: GIFT format - Text file - supports Multiple-Choice, True-False, Short Answer, Matching, Numerical and fill-in-the-blank (called missing word) questions. Aiken format - Text file - supports multiple choice questions. Moodle XML format - XML file - good for copying questions from one course to another

Import questions - Moodl

[MDL-13628] Additional features for Aiken format - Moodl

The Aiken format is a very simple way of creating multiple choice questions in a clear human-readable format and user-friendly to work with. Every format in Moodle has some specifications which must be followed to import the questions successfully. In case of Aiken Format, the question statement must be all on one line It supports Multiple-Choice, True-False, Short Answer, Matching and Numerical questions, as well as insertion of a _____ for the missing word format. Various question-types can be mixed in a single text file, and the format also supports line comments, question names, feedback and percentage-weight grades Quiz: questions - importing in Aiken format (for multiple choice and true/false questions only) Quiz: questions - importing in GIFT format (for multiple choice, true/false, essay, short answer, missing word, numerical and matching question types) Quiz: user and group overrides; Restoring course data from Moodle ISU; Surve

Aiken format - Carleton Moodle Doc

  1. Moodle XML format; WebCT format; For this method, only 2 format would be relevant for us -- namely GIFT format and Aiken format. Although there's no direct way for you import a docx worksheet into moodle as question bank (no LMS in the world has this functionality), we can always take advantage of the 2 formats to do this indirectly
  2. In true-false question-type the answer indicates whether the statement is true or false. (The only answer must be *True or *T or *+ if it is true, or *False or *F or *- if false.) The question formats that Moodle and gift format allow are much wider than the ones presented by this script. You can explore the possibilities offered by.
  3. GIFT format za uvoz vprašanj v spletno učilnico Moodle. V preteklem tednu smo si ogledali, kako vprašanja v Moodle Kviz uvozimo iz formata AIKEN, ki nam omogoča pripravo in uvoz vprašanj izbirnega tipa. Danes pa predstavljamo še drugi format, s katerim lahko prav tako pripravimo in uvozimo vprašanja v kviz v spletni učilnici, in sicer.
  4. This commit does not belong to any branch on this repository, and may belong to a fork outside of the repository

5.4.5. Import otázek ze souboru. Jak už bylo zmíněno výše, je možné napsat si na vlastním počítači jednoduchý textový soubor, například v Notepadu, do něhož na základě nějakého formátu nadefinujeme naše vlastní otázky (úlohy), které následně importujeme do systému (do některé z kategorií). Při tvorbě. Home February 3, 2012 Parse File Aiken (moodle) Mari berdiskusi bersama kami di Group Facebook Kurung Kurawal Script berikut berguna untuk melakukan parsing terhadap file (plain text) dengan format aiken yang digunakan oleh moodle. Diharapkan script ini dapat menangani kondisi dimana terdapat kata ANSWER: pada soal ataupun salah satu pilihan jawabannya

Manually import Respondus questions into i-Learn/Moodle

The GIFT format, also allows for upload in bulk of multiple choice questions, true/false questions, fill in the blank questions and even short answer questions using a Word processor. Additionally, some publishers provide ready-made quizzes in a format compatible with Moodle Pilih format file Aiken Format, kemudian pada import category, pilih nama kategori yang baru saja dibuat. Cara Membuat Soal dengan tipe Benar dan Salah di Moodle. True/False adalah pertanyaan yang ditampilkan dalam bentuk pernyataan dengan pilihan jawaban True atau False 1. Open microsoft word and type in the following format. // true/false::Q1 true false :: 1+1=3 {F}::Q2 fill in the blank:: Two plus {=two =2} equals four.::Q3 fill in the blank:: Moodle costs {~lots of money =nothing ~a small amount} to download from moodle.org. // matchin

How to Create True False Questions in moodle How to add

GIFT format enables multiple choice, true/false, short answer, matching, missing word, numerical and essay questions to be imported or exported via text file. It is recommended to write one or two questions in the GIFT format and import them into the Learning Mall Online (LMO) to check if they can be displayed properly before you write a large. Learn how to import a plain text file with multiple choice and true/false questions into a question bank in your Moodle course @@ -4,6 +4,12 @@ moodle-availability_password: Changes-----### v3.11-r1 * 2021-06-13 - Prepare compatibility for Moodle 3.11. * 2021-06-13 - Added definition for a.

Yes, there are several ways to do this. In this short tutorial, you will learn how to use the Aiken format to quickly write simple multiple-choice and true-false questions in a human-readable format in Word. Your MCQs can then be saved as a plain text file and imported into your Moodle question bank • Import questions from text file using Aiken and GIFT formats . Basic e-Learning 2 Introduction The quiz module in Moodle allows the instructor to design and set a quiz consisting of multiple choice, true / false, short answer, numerical, matching, description, A quiz in Moodle has two main components: body of the quiz and question bank. Yo What is Aiken format? The Aiken format is a very simple way of creating multiple choice questions using a clear human-readable format in a text file. The question must be all on one line. Each answer must start with a single uppercase letter, followed by a period '. ' or a bracket ')', then a space

True and False Questions in Moodle - YouTub

When you use the Moodle Quiz Tool, a lot of the question types are automatically graded for you. (Multiple Choice, True & False, Matching) However, you may want to use Short Answer or Essay Questions in your exam, which will have to be graded manually This video will show you how you can use a text file in the GIFT format to create lots of questions very easily, and then import them into Moodle

VirtualSC Moodle. Listen. Listen with ReadSpeaker. Open/close toolbar. Focus. Available but not shown on course page. Not published to students. Have you completed the VirtualSC Student Orientation ? If not, get off to a great start by completing it before you start any of your VirtualSC courses The Aiken format is a very simple way of creating multiple choice questions using a clear human-readable format in a text file. The question must be all on one line. Each answer must start with a single uppercase letter, followed by a period '.' or a bracket ')', then a space AON -This format is the same as the missing word format, except it creates matching questions from the multiple choice questions. Please note that from Moodle 1.8 it will no longer be part of the standard Moodle. Character encoding. It is important that the imported file is encoded in the UTF-8 standard

Video: KB1163 - Creating Questions in Aiken format - TeamDynami

From Carleton Moodle Docs. Pages in category Questions The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. A. Aiken format; Answers; B. Building Quiz; C. Calculated multichoice question type; Calculated Objects question type; True/False question type; X. XHTML format To add questions to a quiz, open the quiz you would like to edit, and select Edit quiz as shown below. Upon reaching the Edit quiz page, select the Addbutton located on the right side of the page. This should open a drop-down menu that will allow you to add a new question or add a question from a question bank. Select Add a. KB1018 - Quizzes in Moodle - Overview. Tags. quiz exam test testing exams multiple assess. The Quiz activity module allows the teacher to design and build quizzes consisting of a large variety of Question types, including multiple choice, true-false, and short answer questions. These questions are kept in the Question bank and can be re-used in.

The idea is, if you have a set of 10 questions ready, all multiple choices or true/false questions, save it as a 'txt' file, then upload to Moodle using 'Aiken format'. The whole process should take about a minute once you have mastered your skill. The video below shows just that Moodle Tip Multiple-choice and true-false questions are very popular in automated Moodle quizzes. However, building questions into an online quiz can be tedious. There are a number of techniques to speed up this process but my favorite is the Aiken method In the Gift/Aiken format page, pick your preferred format (Gift or Aiken) from the Format type drop-down menu (5). Continue to the Import to unit drop-down menu (6) to choose if your question (s) will be imported directly to a unit and, if yes, which unit it is. Type or paste your questions into the Data area H5P ဆိုသည်မှာ interactive content များ ဖန်တီးခြင်းဖြစ်သည်။ ဥပမာ- video များဖန်တီးရာတွင် ကျောင်းသား များအနေနှင့် သင်ခန်းစာများကို လေ့လာနေချိန်တွင် quiz မေးခွန်းမ. 1 | Halaman P3AI-ITS, 2013 MEMBUAT SOAL KUIS DENGAN MS WORD . MEMPERSIAPKAN TEMPLATE KUIS . 1. Ekstrak file .Zip terlampir. 2. Buka file BukaFileIni.docx melalui MS Word 2007 atau 2010 3. Pastikan tampil interface seperti pada Gambar di bawah ini pada Ribbon MS Word Anda

Moodle: Návod na hromadný import testových otázek do banky úloh textovým souborem ve formátu AIKEN a GIFT Testové otázky lze předem připravit v textovém souboru a lze je pak hromadně importovat do Moodle načtením {TRUE} či {FALSE} nebo pouze zkratka {T} či {F} I like to start working with Import/Export feature(2.2.1 => #2) of my SoC proposal [1] already i have submitted a patch [2] which allows to import quiz questions (multichoice, true/false) in CSV format. This week i will be working on Aiken format [3]. I think this Aiken format is more simpler and relevant to YAML which mbutcher suggested me to. Ada beragam format kuis yang telah dikembangkan oleh praktisi pendidikan, seperti true/false, multiple choice, essay, cloze, dan sebagainya. Benar dan Salah (True/False) Pada format kuis ini siswa harus menentukan jika sebuah pernyataan benar atau salah - Different penalty factor assigned to True/False questions when created using Moodle UI vs. imported from a text file (GIFT format) [ MDL-11830 ] - width of button too small [ MDL-11835 ] - Gradebook in 1.9 could be made easier with better default behavio