The swine industry is a multi-million dollar industry. Hogsare very prolific; a sow can have two litters of pigs ayear. The average litter size is 7.5 pigs, and it is notuncommon for a sow to have 12-14 pigs per litter. Thegestation period of a sow (from the time she is bred untilshe farrows) is 114 days. A sow can have her first litter atapproximately one year of age 04/30/21 NASS to Publish Market Year Average Price for Selected Crops Earlier. 04/05/20 USDA Crop Progress report delayed until 5 pm ET. 01/13/21 USDA reschedules Jan. 20 Broiler Hatchery report. 12/10/20 USDA NASS to Reinstate the Agricultural Labor Survey Previously Scheduled for Oct. 202 The Landrace data set included 5178 litter size records and a pedigree file of 8800 individuals. The raw means for litter size and average piglet weight were 14.23 piglets and 1.36 kg., respectively, with standard deviations 3.62 piglets and 0.35 kg .Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. 2752. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/275 An average herd parity of 2.5 to 3.0, with over 45 percent of the sows in parity three to six is optimal for overall productivity. The parity distribution that optimizes litter size varies with genotype, management and facility type. 2
Acceptable average litter size at birth 9 (litter size at birth - 8.56-11.47; litter size born alive 7.87-10.69) Acceptable average litter size at weaning 8 (5.43-9.69 LSY EBV had a 15.3% higher average farrowing rate compared to sires in the bottom 25%. Daughters from the top sire had a one parity greater average removal parity than daughters from the other sire group. This extra litter corresponded to an average of 8.9 more pigs produced in a sow's lifetime A domestic farm pig averages 10 piglets per litter and can have two to three litters per year. Feral hogs have five to six piglets per litter and average 1.5 litters per year. Pig farmers average 23 piglets per year per breeding sow female pig that has had a litter of pigs. Farrowing crate. crate in which a sow is placed to give birth and nurse the baby pigs. What is the average litter size? 10 pigs. What is the feed efficiency of swine? 3:1. What is the feed efficiency of a boar? 2:1. What is pig manure used for? Fertilizer While not easy, Gillespie demonstrates in Figure 1 how a select group of producers representing 8,000 sows managed to take total pigs born per litter from 11.5 to over 13 across a 15-year period. At the same time, average preweaning mortality was kept at or below a very respectable 7%, and just 5% for 2007 and 2008
Significant heterosis estimates were obtained for litter size and weight at weaning and for survival rate. Crossbred litters had .79 more pigs, were 11.72 kg heavier at weaning and had a 5.56% greater survival rate than the average of all purebreds In reality, the average litter size might be closer to 11.5 pigs, which is higher than either of the parent breeds. Improvement of the actual litter size over expected litter size is a result of heterosis. You may be able to understand heterosis better by studying the following table. Yorkshire litter size = 11 pigs per litter
. To determine what probable average increase in litter size can be ob- tained by selecting breeding stock from the larger litters and to kno Litter size: The number of pigs per litter. As the number of pigs born per litter increase, generally there is an increase in the number of pigs born alive and the number of pigs weaned. This number is currently scrutinized as a primary economical focus, as in recent years there has been evidence of reduced birth weights due to increased litter.
TABLE 1.—-Number of pigs, number of litters, and average size of litters studied Breed Number of pigs Number of litters Average size of litter Breed Number of pigs Number of litters size of litter Duroc-Jersey.. ___ 2,265 2,442 290 1,536 794 514 228 194 81 45 9.93 9.07 8.42 7.91 9.80 11.42 Hampshire— ._ 472 52_. Berkshire.- Tamworth Litter Size (LS) The average of all parities for purebred Berkshire sows will range between 5 to 14 pigs born alive. Under proper nutrition, health, breeding and management programs an average of 9.0 born alive and a weaned average of 7.0 - 8.0 is an achievable goal with the pure Berkshire sow. Th Duroc x Hampshire and 10.18 pigs for Hamshire x Yorkshire gilts. When mated to a Yorkshire boar, Duroc x Yorkshire gilts had the largest average litter size at birth 11.03 pigs. Three-breed cross litters were 0.46 larger and 8.3 pounds heavier at 42 days than were backcross litters. Litter size at 42 days is the average number o The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is an omnivorous, domesticated even-toed ungulate.It is variously considered a subspecies of the Eurasian boar or a distinct species.The domestic pig's head-plus-body length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m (2 ft 11 in to 5 ft 11 in), and.
The average litter size varies between 8 and 9 piglets. Farmers will profit from this as well. However, one of the disadvantages of raising Hereford pigs is that they like living in a large outside fence with plenty of room to wander around The objective of this study was to underline that litter size as a key trait of sows needs new parameters to be evaluated and to target an individual optimum. Large individual variation in litter size affects both production and piglet's survival and health negatively. Therefore, two new traits were suggested and analyzed. Two data sets on 5509 purebred German Landrace sows and 3926 Large.
The average litter size is 7.5 pigs, and it is not uncommon for a sow to have 12-14 pigs per litter. The gestation period of a sow (from the time she is bred until she farrows) is 114 days. How many litters of pigs can a sow have in a year? A mature sow can have one to two litters per year average litter sizes. Pig weaning weights can be increased by feeding more nu-trient-dense diets from the gilt devel-opment period through the first lactation. Introduction Increasing litter size weaned im-proves the economic efficiency of pork production. However, as litter size at birth is increased through genetic se-lection, the number of. a guinea pig can have a litter the size of anything between 1-6 pups, the average is about 3 pups, a first time litter is usually about 2 pups. Name for a pig that has not had a litter? boa Monthly Sows Farrowing, Pigs per Litter, and Pig Crop - United States: December-November 2019 and 2020 [December preceding year. Blank data cells indicate estimation period has not yet begun] Month Sows farrowing 1 Pigs per litter Pig crop 1 2019 2020 2019 2020 2019 202 The average pigs saved per litter was 10.95 for the March-May period, compared to 11.00 last year. Each extra pig is worth much more this year than last year at this time. While lower litter rates could have come from higher disease incidence and labor challenges, the makeup of the breeding herd is also a likely culprit
Litter size and birth weight The average birth weights for the different litter sizes are shown in table 2 and figure 2. The mean litter size for the 506 Iowa litters (all out of gilts) is 7.195.07 pigs per litter. The birth weights reported by CAR- MICHAEL and RICE (1926), MCKENZIE (1928) and KUHLMAN (unpublished) are given for comparison average size of the herd was 68 sows. The herd was a one-litter system, i.e., sows were farrowed once and sold. Replacement gilts were saved annually to farrow at 1 year of age. Average conception rate was 80% and the pre-wean mortality was 12%. Weaning occurred at 4Ñ6 weeks. An average of 7.9 pigs/litter was weaned Parity 1 litter size ≥ 15.5 total born ≥ 14.5 born alive ≥ 13.5 pigs weaned ≤ 14.5 total born ≤ 13.5 born alive ≤ 12.5 pigs weaned Parity 1 breed back ≥ 90% ≤ 85% Parity 1 wean to service interval ≤ 6 days ≥ 7 days Retention rates (starting with 100 bred gilts) ≥ 95 parity 1 ≥ 85 parity 2 ≥ 75 parity 3 < 85 parity
Number of functional teats is an important trait in commercial swine production. As litter size increases, the number of teats must also increase to supply nutrition to all piglets. Therefore, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify genomic regions that affect this trait in a commercial swine population. Genotypic data from the Illumina Porcine SNP60v1 BeadChip were. In swine, sows with the T allele have an average litter size that is one or two piglets greater than the average litter size of sows with the C allele, according to the study. The T allele occurred at low frequency in the population studied, but is a beneficial genetic difference
. for the purebred and 177 lb. for the crossbred. The data also indicated that there was more advantage in using a boar of another breed on purebred Duroc or Hampshire gilts than on Yorkshire gilts. Select crossbred gilts for greater ovulation rate, litter size and weaning weight The paternal grandam of Chris has averaged 12.3 born, 11.5 weaned, 181.8 21-day litter weight for six parities. She had EPD's of -4.7 days, 0.32 NBA, 1.3 LWT, and 127.5 MLI; Achilles was also top indexing in his contemporary off test group. He again was the fastest growing (143 days) and from a litter of 14 born alive, 14 weaned The average litter size of the Idaho Pasture Pigs is 5- 7 for a gilt (first time mom) and 8 - 10 for a sow. (Compliments of Chestnuts' 3J's Farm) This picture shows a good litter, evenly spaced teats for nursing, and a nice head with upturned snout! Another Great Litter Size
And average live body weight of the mature boars vary from 250 to 340 kg. Photo and info from Wikipedia. Special Notes. The American Yorkshire pig is a rough and strong breed that can endure deviations in climate and other ecological factors. The sows are good mothers and their average litter size is about 13 piglets per sow Newly weaned pigs must adapt to solid food, drinking from a water nipple or bowl, a change in environment and a separation from the sow. Pigs are often housed by gender and/or body weight size so the pig may also be separated from its litter mates. Newly weaned pigs have an immature digestiv For an average litter size weaned of 9 pigs (4.5 females) in maternal production units, this would mean selection on average of 2 to 2.25 pigs per maternal litter produced. To offset the reduced number of replacement females produced within a litter, the number of dams dedicated to producing replacement females will need to be increased Item birth Litter wt # weaned Litter 21-day wt Number born .62 .73 .45 Litter birth weight .71 .68 Number weaned .87 Table 2. Genetic correlations among sow productivity traits. Item Feed conversion Backfat probe Days to 230 lb. 60 -.25 Average daily gain -.53 .12 Feed conversion .30 Table 3
Pigs born alive per sow per year (average) The number of piglets born alive per sow in a given period expressed on a yearly basis, divided by the average herd size at mating. total number of piglets born alive. sows on hand (see herd size) at time of mating. x 365 days days in period .0 pigs weaned. If sow 19-2 weaned 12.0 pigs in her litter, she would be pheno-typically 4.0 pigs above average. This phenotypic difference from the mean is called her selection differential. Why is she better than average? a) she had a better environment (warmer, drier, etc.) b) she was genetically superio Average length: 18-30 inches; AVERAGE mature weight: 75-150 pounds **Known crossbred animals can be granted a 50%-75% registration based on the AMPA breed standards** The age, height, and body length of the parent pigs is the best indicator for adult size no matter what label or breed name is used to describe that individual piglet The importance of sow productivity like litter size in swine breeding has increased during the last years. Crossing of fertile purebred lines is an effective tool to increase litter size in commercial breeding programs in order to use individual and maternal heterosis. At present, sires were selected due to their purebred Performance althoug
The average litter size is 6 to 8 piglets, although first litters of up to 12 piglets are not unusual. A litter size of only 1 or 2 piglets is rare, as often with a very few piglets the sow is likely to reabsorb or abort the litter and 'start again' On average, litter size was found to be 14.3 piglets, of which 13.1 were liveborn. Average birth weight was 1.46 kg. Total mortality was found to be 17.5%. The weight of 1.13 kg was found to be a clear breaking point when it comes down to pre-weaning survival chances, also see Figure 1. Below this weight, piglets on average had a 58% chance of. Heritabilities of litter size traits at birth (total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), and number still born (NSB)) and their genetic correlations with body measurement (body height, body l.. The average weight of the mature Chester White Pig (Sows) 500 to 650 pounds (227 to 295 kg) and the average of the male (Boar) is 550 to 800 pounds (250 to 363 kg). For the farmers that intended a lot of lard and meat for the family and markets in the home country and out of the home country Similar to the newborn litter size, the number of lactating teats per sow averages 4-6 and varies from 1-12. As such, the number of lactating teats is highly correlated with the number of piglets in the sow's litter. The litter size in feral sows reportedly decreases after about the 5th-7th litter or 4-5 years of age
a guinea pig can have a litter the size of anything between 1-6 pups, the average is about 3 pups, a first time litter is usually about 2 pups The average litter size for an IPP gilt (first-time mom) is five to seven and the average size litter for a sow is eight to 10 piglets. The smaller litter sizes are desirable because the piglets don't deplete the sow like larger litters tend to do. Idaho Pasture Pigs are great mothers and have a very good maternal instinct Serbia. The results obtained should enable the selection of litter size traits that would be proposed to be included in the selection - breeding program for this breed. The analysis of parameters was carried out on the basis of data on fertility of 4.061 Swedish Landrace sows and their 15.209 litters realized on two pig farms in R. Serbia
The average litter size on Irish sow herds is 1.5 pigs less than that of the average for the Danish national herd. This paper has discussed the factors limiting litter size in Ireland, including; genetics, gilt selection and management, sow feeding, lactation length, parity distribution, diseases, movement/stress, boar fertility, timing of. For first-time breeders, it lasts 114-130 days, while it lasts 133-140 days in older sows. Farrowing occurs between March and May, with litter sizes depending on the age and nutrition of the mother. The average litter consists of 4-6 piglets, with the maximum being 10-12
In contrast, the predicted number of pigs per litter for 2019 using the model referenced above, was only 10.66. If pigs per litter for the remaining months in 2019 average 11 pigs per litter, 2019 would be one of the best years in terms of improvements in production performance over the last three decades Increasing litter size while maintaining or improving pig quality would maximize production efficiency and profitability for a commercial swine operation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of litter size on birth weight and the effect of birth weight on growth rate and survivability. The average birth weight was 1.40. Fattening pigs gain daily about 600 g, carcass length is 92.5 cm and average backfat thickness at 100 kg is 34.8 mm. Average litter size is 11.4 pigs, litter weight at 21 day 43.2 kg. In recent years the Lithuanian native breed was found to be on the verge of extinction Improvement of litter size is key to economic enhancement of swine production. Experiments and computer simulation will be used to: 1) identify economically optimal scenarios of estrous detection and insemination of swine; 2) create a model that permits better description of the interacting components of litter size in swine; and 3) refine and validate an existing selection procedure which. Duroc pigs are large-framed animals and are muscular. Average live body weight of the mature sows is around 204-295 kg. And average live body weight of the mature boars vary from 227 to 340 kg. Photo and info from Wikipedia. Special Notes. The Duroc pig is a very hardy breed. And it is well known for it's hardiness and quick but through.
Twelve hundred fifty-one pigs from six farrowings (FGRP) were classified within a FGRP by their birth litter size (BL- = below average and BL+ = above average), randomly allotted to nursing litter sizes of 6 or 12+ pigs/sow (NL- vs NL+) and reared by their own or foster dams (XF- vs XF+). Pigs were weighed at birth, 21 d and when near 105 kg The average litter size of Landrace boars with less than 10.76% AR pattern after capacitation was 10.76 piglets, whereas the average litter size of boars with ≥10.76% AR pattern after capacitation was 11.35 piglets (p<0.05, Figure 4A) far as litter size in swine is concerned. Swine are inefficient in reproduction. Ovulation rate was the first limiting factor in establishing litter size. At breeding time a sow will normally produce about 17 eggs. Thus, the maximum average litter size possible at present would be about 17 pigs. Ap-proximately 95% of the eggs produce I've directly or indirectly witnessed (that is, cared for the offspring of) around a dozen total litters throughout my lifetime. The most I've seen in one litter is three, which I only remember happening two times. The smallest litter I've seen is.. Extra feed cost/pig : DWBAR. 22.637. Average days to weaning (15 lb pigs weaned) XST. 10.4. Average size of standardized litter : WNM.11. Average preweaning mortality : XSTWNM. 9.256. XST(1-WNM) = Average litter size at weaning : TWW. 15. Target weaning weight (lbs) XBW. 3.2. Average birth weight (lbs) ZLW. 130.94. Average litter weight at 21.
(1, 5, 7, 12, 14). Litter size increased with parity and the pattern is illustrated in Fig. 1. An increase of over one pig per litter at birth was found between gilts and sows far rowing for the second time. Subsequently smaller increases continued up to the fifth parity. Litter size at weaning increased sharply from first to second parity but. + 0.6 for a sow means you to expect her daughters to farrow 0.6 more pigs per litter than the average sow. The average sows NBA EPD would be 0.0 with a positive value being more desirable. Meanwhile, a negative value is less desirable and indicates less per litter than the average sow 1. How many do they average per litter and how often can they breed in a year? The wild pig is the most prolific large mammal on the face of the Earth — but they are not born pregnant! The average is between five and six pigs per litter. Sows have an average of about 1.5 litters per year Dam of Sterby Derby will be a fourth parity female that averages 2.40 litters farrowed per year with 24.81 pigs weaned per year as well. Average born alive is 10.67 and litter weight of 175 lbs. She has EPDs 0.3 NBA, 2.40 LWT and 122.0 ML The name given to a group of pigs depends on the ages of those pigs. For instance, a group of older pigs is called a sounder, passel, parcel, or team of pigs. However, younger pigs are referred to as a drove, litter, or drift of pigs. Male pigs of any age are boars while the females are sows
The most critical period in the life cycle of a pig is from birth to weaning. On the average, about two pigs per litter are lost during this period. Poor management is the major contributing factor, although the actual cause may be crushing, bleeding from the navel, anemia, starvation or disease.Weaning large litters of thrifty, heavyweight pigs is a key factor for a profitable swine herd. Litter Uniformity Necessary to Achieving 30+ Pigs. Hypor geneticists have spent nearly a decade to develop the Hypor Libra*, a sow that is capable of producing more than 30 piglets a year that reach 14 pounds (6.3 kilograms) in three weeks without cross-fostering or relying on milk replacer The average birth interval between successive live pigs is 13 to 18 minutes but between a live pig and stillborn pig is 45 to 55 minutes. However, the intervals are longer between the first two and the last two pigs born in a litter. Generally speaking the last pig born has less than a 50% chance of survival in any litter 1. How many they average per litter and how often they can breed in a year? The wild pig is the most prolific large mammal on the face of the Earth—but they are not born pregnant! The average is between 5 and 6 pigs per litter. Sows have approximately 1.5 litters per year. Are more litters per year and larger litter sizes possible
These would include reproductive traits such as libido in boars, litter size and weight, and survival rate. Growth rate is also affected by inbreeding. Data from the inbreeding studies in the United States were pooled to evaluate the magnitude of inbreeding depression in swine (Bereskin et al., 1968, Journal of Animal Science 27:339) The average litter size for a potbellied pig is 6 - 8 piglets, but up to 10 - 12 may be born. An uncomplicated delivery may take up to 1-2 hours, with about 15 to 30 minutes between the births of individual pigs. Baby pigs weigh somewhere between 6 and 12 ounces at birth In a 200 sow herd, the litter size fell from an average of 10.5 pigs born alive per litter from January to June, to an average of 9.2 for the remainder of the year. Management changes during the first part of the year resulted in half the sows weaning litters at three weeks of age and half the sows weaning at four weeks of age instead of at six. 1 INTRODUCTION. Over the recent decades, litter size of modern pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) breeds increased considerably (Baumgartner, 2012; Hansen, 2018).Currently, litters with ≥18 piglets are not uncommon (Björkman et al., 2017; Declerck et al., 2017).Along with increased litter size, average piglet birth weight decreased, while within litter birth weight variability increased (Quesnel et. tinuous systematic selection. Average duration of RC was 206.51 days, so the number of possible parities during the year was 1.77. Examined sows farrowed in average 4.60 live born and 0.30 stillborn piglets per litter. The average number of NWP was 4.09, which means that the mortality rate of piglets during lactation was 11.09% compared to the NBA
Finished pigs sold/litter 8.47 9.11 9.70 Finished pigs sold/sow/year 18.6 21.0 23.3 1. Finished pig sales: based on a 275 pound finished pig and a market price of $69.72 per cwt (see MF1013 for details). 2. Less death loss: based on death loss in nursery and finisher times the value of market hog (with feed an Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eleventh Revised Edition: NRC 2012 Models for Estimating Nutrient Requirements of Pigs Case studies EFFECTS OF PARITY AND ANTICIPATED LITTER SIZE ON NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS Click Enter Default Inputs and ensure that the information in the INPUT area is not changed from that used for section Effect of Stage of. Height (size) Boar: 92 cm Sow: 84 cm: Lifespan: 6-10 years (average) Litter Size: 6-12 piglets per litter: Flock Details: Up to 40 individuals: Diet: Omnivorous; usually consume seeds, roots, fungus and leaves, but also meat; sometimes also consume own babies: Country of Origin: Germany: Conservation status: Rare bree An analysis of litter size and average piglet weight at birth in Landrace and Yorkshire using a standard two-trait mixed model (SMM) and a recursive mixed model (RMM) is presented. The RMM establishes a one-way link from litter size to average piglet weight. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the parameters of SMM and RMM and that they generate equivalent likelihoods
SOME IMPORTANT FEATURES OF CAMBOROUGH PIG. • The breed grows fast, gives large litter and is big in size. The highest litter per sow per parturition ranges between 15 sand 20piglets while average ranges between 10 and 15piglets. • Have faster growth rate. At four months, the boars have attained a weight of 120kgs National Pig Improvement Program (NPIP). The NPIP provides across-herd EBVs, and genetic trends for Large White are presented in the following graphs for average daily gain, backfat depth and litter size. These genetic trends are the average genetic trend of all participating herds. Genetic trends of individual seedstock providers may diffe If 46 weaners are required per week, and the average litter size at weaning is 9.2, then five litters are needed each week (46 ÷ 9.2 = 5). Determine the mating target based on the target number of litters per week and the average farrowing rate of the herd Because a 1-pig difference in litter size is worth about $200 million a year to the swine industry, the impact of this marker on the swine industry is potentially substantial, provided (1) that a similar advantage is obtained in diverse swine populations and (2) that the frequency of the beneficial allele in national swine populations is. Given an average litter size of 10 for this boar line, this suggests that indeed half of the litter was unviable. Also the sires of Pig 5 and 7 had a reduced litter size, suggesting these sires are carriers of the respective RT and the RT was inherited rather than de novo. The dam of pig 2 had and average litter size of 8 with a large standard.
How many piglets can a Yorkshire pig have? You can expect a litter size of 10 to 12 piglets with Yorkshire pigs, which is slightly higher than the average for pigs. Conclusion. While it took a while for Yorkshire pigs to reach their full potential, they are now widely seen on most farms in the United States litter nor the size of thelitter at weaning. Duroc- and Hampshire-siredlitters had significantly (P < 0.01) fewer stillbirthsthan litters siredby Large Whiteand Landrace boars between which there was no difference in the number of pigs born dead in the litter (Table 1). Figuresgiven inTable2show that the mean age
Introduction• Management advances and selection for prolificacy have greatly increased litter size in swine (Estienne, 2012) Early-in-life Here experiences impact lifetime reproductive Title performance and longevity in sows• Consequences have 12 been an increase in 11 the variation of birth 10 Born weight & the Born Live S e L z r t i 9. Until December 2017, USDA reported pigs per litter by size of operation. Unfortunately, this data series was discontinued. Those data showed the positive influence of large operations on the U.S. litter rate. For example, in 2017 the average pigs saved per litter on all operations was 10.59. The average on operations with 5,000 or more head was.
The ability of individual analyzed parameters to predict litter size was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves (litter size [greater than or equal to]11 or <11 [based on average litter size of Landrace pigs], litter size [greater than or equal to]12 or <12 (based on average litter size of Yorkshire pigs), and litter size. Poor litter size at birth was observed in gilts and sows that farrowed in both the rainy and cool seasons. The mechanism for the reduction of the litter size at birth of pigs might be due to both embryonic and fetal loss. In the present study, the fetal loss was demonstrated by the frequency distribution of the MF in each season
Overall reproductive performance was similar among the four herds. Late insemination caused a drop in farrowing rate in parity 1 and 2 females (23 and 22%; P < .05 and P < .01, respectively) and average litter size decreased by 1.1 pigs per litter (P < .05) regardless of parity 79.8%. In contrast, only the neonatal environment significantly influenced number of pigs born alive. Sows reared with of 7 or fewer litter mates gave birth to an average of 11.0 pigs over six parities compared with 10.5 pigs for sows raised in litters of 10 or more pigs Figuring an average litter size of 7-1/2 pigs, cost is 89 cents per pig. These costs are for a 1 litter system, consequently 2 litters per year would be 1/2, 3 would be 1/3 and so on. In a one litter system with pigs going all the way to market in the same pasture, the land cost would only be about .40 cents per hundred weight The average number weaned on all operations was 8.19 pigs per litter and the average on operations with 5,000 or more head was 8.73. By 2008, operations with 5,000 or more head weaned 9.48 pigs per litter while the average for all operations was 9.41 and the average for operations with less than 5,000 head was 8.93 pigs per litter The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between direct and maternal genetic effects on litter size and piglet survival. The analyses were performed on records from 26 564 Landrace litters and 15 103 Yorkshire litters from first parity dams in Finnish herds