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Skeletal survey age

Over 2 years of age: Children who are immobilized or disabled should be studied according to the newborn to 2 years of age category. For children between 2 and 5 years of age, the need for a skeletal survey should be determined on a case by case basis and based on specific clinical indicators of abuse and suspected mechanism of trauma Skeletal survey (SS) is an important radiological tool in children less than 24 months of age to detect occult fractures related to abuse or fractures that are not suspected from the history and/or examination. SS exposes children to radiation and should not be routinely performed in children at low risk of occult injuries A skeletal survey is a series of radiographs, performed systematically to cover the entire skeleton or the anatomic regions appropriate for the clinical indications.. Its objective is to accurately identify focal and diffuse abnormalities of the skeleton and to differentiate them from developmental changes and other anatomic variants that may occur in infants and children Indicators of Skeletal Development in the Hand. The skeletal development of the hand can be divided into six stages. Specific ossification centers in different age groups are the best predictors of skeletal maturity (Fig. 17.1 and Table 17.1).The various methods of determining skeletal age are based on this developmental pattern

Skeletal surveys may also be ordered in cases of suspected child abuse, particularly in children two years old or less. Often, this happens in the emergency department when a child presents with a traumatic injury. Some element of the history, physical examination, or radiographic evaluation may lead the doctors to suspect non-accidental trauma The skeletal survey is mandatory in all cases of suspected physical abuse in children younger than 2 years; its utility diminishes thereafter. 8, 26 The screening skeletal survey or bone scan has little value in children older than 5 years

Indian Pediatrics - Editorial

Guidelines for skeletal survey in young children with

RESULTS: Skeletal surveys were performed in 46.3% of children aged 0 to 5 months, in 21.1% of those aged 6 to 11 months, in 8.0% of those aged 12 to 17 months, and in 6.2% of those aged 18 to 24 months The radiographic skeletal survey is the most widely used and well-researched test for occult abusive injuries. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 The American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) current policy states that the skeletal survey is mandatory in all cases of suspected physical abuse in children younger than 2 years; its utility diminishes thereafter 5. Skeletal Survey (should be obtained Monday through Friday during normal business hours UNLESS this would delay discharge) a. Children < 3 years. of age should have a skeletal survey to evaluate for occult fractures. When ordering a skeletal survey, be sure to include oblique x-rays of the ribs. b. Children > 3 year The skeletal survey is mandatory in all cases ofsuspected physical abuse in children younger than 2years. The screening skeletal survey or bone scan haslittle value in children older than 5 years. Patients inthe 2- to 5-year-old group must be handled individ-ually based on the specific clinical indicators ofabuse. At any age, when clinical findings point to aspecific site of injury, the customary radiographicprotocol for imaging that anatomic region should beused

A skeletal survey in non-accidental injury is a defined set of images that are obtained to assess the majority of the bones in the child.Referral for a skeletal survey in this context will usually come from a member of the child protection team and there should be a thorough discussion about their concerns prior to the study being performed New fracture identification rates for skeletal survey were similar between children 24-36 months of age (10.3%, 95% CI 7.2-14.2) and children 12-24 months of age (12.0%, 95% CI 9.2-15.3) Conclusions Skeletal surveys identify new fractures in an important fraction of children referred for subspecialty consultation with concerns of physical abuse

The following standards are taken from this document: • The skeletal survey should be acquired and reported within 24 hours and certainly no later than 72 hours from the request being made. • A skeletal survey should include a standard set of views outlined within the appendix. • Follow-up imaging should be performed in all children. A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a child's skeletal system. It's usually done by taking a single X-ray of the left wrist, hand, and fingers. It is a safe and painless procedure that uses a small amount of radiation. The bones on the X-ray image are compared with X-rays images in a standard atlas of bone development, which. NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY Skeletal Maturity of Children6-11 Years United States Skeletal age (hand-wrist), onset of ossification, and bone-specific skeletal ages by chronological age and sex of boys and girls 6-11 years of age as assessed by the Health Examination Survey Standard based primarily on the Greulich-Pyle Radiographic Atlas Start studying Bone Age and Skeletal Survey Unit 1. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Skeletal surveys are a set of radiological images to assess for further evidence of injury in cases of possible non-accidental injury. It is particularly used in those under 24 months old, who are less able to give a history or demonstrate localised pain/injury on examination

Skeletal survey Radiology Reference Article

  1. ation Survey Standard based primarily on the Greulich-Pyle Radiographic Atlas
  2. e whether FUSS provides new information. Participants included children <10 years of age who underwent evaluation for possible physical abuse by one of 20 child abuse teams in the study network
  3. Additionally, skeletal surveys need to be considered in young siblings of those found to have injuries consistent with physical abuse. Generally speaking, the utility of the skeletal survey decreases in children beyond the age of 2 years, and is felt to provide little value in children older than 5
  4. A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a child's skeletal system. It's usually done by taking a single X-ray of the left wrist, hand, and fingers. It is a safe and painless procedure that uses a small amount of radiation. The bones on the X-ray image are compared with X-rays images in a standard atlas of bone development.
  5. Skeletal survey and head scans for children under 2 years of age Introduction This leaflet is for those with parental responsibility for children who need X-ray's and scans when there are concerns raised for a child's welfare. Why are any tests needed in this situation? NHS hospitals and all their employees have a duty to protect children

Unit 1 Atrhrography Orthoroentgenography Bone Age and Skeletal Survey Foreign Body Localization. The flashcards below were created by user CoLinRadTechss on FreezingBlue Flashcards. Home. Mobile. Quiz. invasive radiographic examination of the soft tissue structures of a diarthrodial joint by the introduction of water soluble contrast medi Skeletal survey has been the standard imaging procedure used during the past decade, but it should no longer be used unless it is the only option. with a median age at diagnosis of 69 years and a median age at death of 74 years . Nevertheless, younger patients also can be affected, with 10% and 2% of patients. Although the complete skeletal survey is almost always mandatory in suspected child abuse cases for patients under 2 years of age, its utility diminishes and provides little value after age 5. Between the ages of 2 and 5 years, imaging is guided by specific clinical indicators of abuse and should be individually prescribed Normal pediatric bone xray. This is a repository of radiograph examples (X-rays) of the pediatric (children) skeleton by age, from birth to 15 years. Ages are approximate (generally, at most +/- 1-2 months, but mostly within + / - 15 days - unless stated otherwise). Male and female subjects are intermixed alternative or adjunct to the radiographic skeletal survey in selected cases, particularly for children older than 1 year of age. provides increased sensitivity for detecting rib fractures, subtle shaft fractures, and areas of early periosteal elevation. not useful in metaphyseal or cranial fractures

Skeletal Age Radiology Ke

Bone age is the degree of maturation of a child's bones.As a person grows from fetal life through childhood, puberty, and finishes growth as a young adult, the bones of the skeleton change in size and shape. These changes can be seen by x-ray techniques. The bone age of a child is the average age at which children reach various stages of bone maturation Bone age study 2. Skeletal survey 3. Bone density study 4. Nuclear medicine bone scan. 1. Bone age study. What is the term for a functional study of the bladder and urethra? 1. Retrograde urography 2. Retrograde cystography 3. Retrograde urethrography 4. Voiding cystourethrography. 4. Voiding cystourethrograph A skeletal radiologic survey may reveal fractures that are not detectable with clinical evaluation (e.g., rib and metaphyseal fractures), particularly in children younger than two years Yield of Skeletal Surveys in Children ≤ 18 Months of Age Presenting With Isolated Skull Fractures . Laskey AL, Stump TE, Hicks RA, Smith JL J Pediatr. 2013;162:86-8 Skeletal age assessment (SAA) is one of the techniques to verify the claimed age and actual age. It is also performed to evaluate whether skeletal age is normal or delayed compared to the patient's chronological age (CA). A delayed or advanced bone age can indicate growth disorders

Conditions for coverage of bone mass measurements are now contained in chapter 15, section 80.5 of Pub. 100-02, Medicare Benefit Policy Manual. Claims processing instructions can be found in chapter 13, section 140 of Pub. 100-04, Medicare Claims Processing Manual Bone survey Definition. A bone survey is an x ray to check the health and status of a person's bones. It is an important tool for diagnosing the presence of multiple myeloma lesions in bone.. Purpose. The bone survey is the standard method for determining if there is bone involvement in multiple myeloma

Bone Age Coefficient × Bone Age (years) + Constant In girls, these investigators incorporated knowledge of whether or not menarche had occurred, which improved their predictions. The tables for the coefficients for prediction of adult height are on pages 93 and 94. Conventional Techniques for Skeletal Determination Bone age is measured in years, most often using the Greulich-Pyle scale. If a child has bone age 10 years, it means that the child maturation is as advanced as the average of the 10-year old children from Ohio in 1930-1940 that Greulich and Pyle studied. Bone age impact factors. Different population groups mature at different speeds A difference between a child's bone age and chronological age might point to a growing problem [7]. Bone age can be used to predict: how much time a child will be growing, when a child will enter puberty and what will be the child's height associated with the bone age Study of bone age has started so many years ago

Skeletal Survey: Uses, Procedure, Result

diagnostics Review Bone Age Assessment Empowered with Deep Learning: A Survey, Open Research Challenges and Future Directions Muhammad Waqas Nadeem 1,2,* , Hock Guan Goh 1,*, Abid Ali 2, Muzammil Hussain 3, Muhammad Adnan Khan 2 and Vasaki a/p Ponnusamy 1 1 Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (FICT), Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Kampar 31900, Perak, Malaysia; vasaki. In individuals aged >50 years the overall incidence of a paraprotein is 3.2%; this varies with age (age 50-59, 1.7%; age >70, 5.3%) and sex (men: women, Clearly it is inappropriate to perform a skeletal survey and bone marrow investigation in all patients in whom a low level paraprotein is detected. Clinical judgement is required and. The prevalence of low bone mass at either skeletal site by age ranged from 32% to 60% in men and 54%-67% in women. In men, the prevalence of low bone mass did not increase with age until aged 70 years, after which it increased progressively. In women, the prevalence of low bone mass increased until age 70 years, after which it remained stable

Diagnostic Imaging of Child Abuse American Academy of

  1. Skeletal dysplasias are a complex group of bone and cartilage disorders that may affect the fetal skeleton as it develops in utero. As a whole, skeletal dysplasias are not common. They affect one in every 4,000-5,000 births, although the incidence may be higher since the symptoms may not manifest until early childhood, when short stature, joint.
  2. In 1994, Tanner and Gibbons proposed a computer-based skeletal age scoring system (CASAS), based on the Tanner and Whitehouse2 (TW2) method using radius, ulna, and short bones (RUS) [62]. Automated bone age assessment: motivation, taxonomies, and challenge
  3. If the predicted height based on the bone age is still below the height expected for the family, further work-up is still indicated. For example, a girl with Turner syndrome could have a delayed bone age due to lack of estrogen production, but her predicted height based on bone age is still likely to be low for the family
  4. ation suggests innocent murmur, no need for urgent CXR - but arrange appropriate follow up. Hypertension - CXR is seldom useful

What Is a Skeletal Survey? (with pictures

Skeletal Survey - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

77072 CR Bone Age Study 1 Bone Age, Hand 1V for bone age 73550 CR Femur 2V 2-8 Lt, Rt, or Bilat Femur, Thigh, Upper leg 77076 Bone Survey Infant 9-23 X-ray Bone Survey, X-ray Bone study BONE SURVEY 73592 CR Lower Extremity Infant 3-8 Pediatric leg, lower limb, Hip-foo When dictating an extended bone survey does each image need to be mentioned or can a general review of the exam be dictated metioning the quantitiy of films? It is my understanding that if it is not documented/dictated it is not done. If the CPT cope mentions specifically a specific area/ body part in it's description, you would not. Bone age estimation by MRI: Although less often used in clinical practice, MRI is a promising imaging modality in bone age estimation [26,27,28]. A recent study has suggested the feasibility for bone age assessment from epiphyseal appearances around the knee joint on MRI. Hand MRI has also been evaluated for the feasibility for bone age estimation 5-10% of children seen in emergency rooms suffer from child abuse. Radiologist has legal obligation to report suspected child abuse, usually to the referring physician. Age. Usually <2 years. In children <2 years of age, a skeletal survey may be best to demonstrate other fractures. In children >2 years of age, a bone scan may be best Making a diagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia on clinical grounds may be extremely easy but it may be so difficult that it is easy to miss. Table 1 shows the features that should alert the clinician to request a radiographic skeletal survey—the sine qua non of diagnosis. Failure to diagnose mild cases of the more common skeletal dysplasias leads clinicians to reassure patients incorrectly about.

1.1 Manual Approaches for Bone Age Assessment: Dead human do tell stories about its sex, age, height and diseases they had at the time of death. Bone age estimation is a clinical method for identifying the skeleton maturation of the human as per the age. Initially forensic scientists have proposed tooth eruption [1][2][3][4] as the bone age Based on bone age, the height of the child, and the data compiled in the atlas, it is possible to predict height based on the percentage of height growth remaining at a given bone age. Note that the data in the atlas were obtained between 1931 and 1942 from Caucasian children, which may limit how accurately the Greulich-Pyle method can be used. The bone age remains delayed but has progressed to approximately 9 years (patient age, 14 years). (f) Anteroposterior radiograph of the right knee obtained after 2 years of thyroid hormone replacement therapy shows maturation of the epiphyses but residual irregularity of the tibial and femoral epiphyses (arrows). (Images courtesy of Ok-Hwa Kim. Paget's disease of bone; Other names: osteitis deformans, Paget's disease This 92 year-old male patient presented for assessment of sudden inability to move half his body.An incidental finding was marked thickening of the calvarium.The diploic space is widened and there are ill-defined sclerotic and lucent areas throughout. The cortex is thickened and irregular

An approach to malignant bone tumors

Joint Survey from National Osteoporosis Foundation, HealthyWomen and Radius Health Sounds an Urgent Call to Action for Women to Know Their Risk, Get the Facts: 'Fractured Truth' Education Campaign Addresses Entrenched Misperceptions, Asks Women to Rethink Their Beliefs About Bone Health WALTHAM, Mass., Aug. 10, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — A fracture (bone break) in a... Read more General Politics Forum. General Politics Forum for topics that are not necessarily current events. Forum Actions: View this forum's RSS feed. Forum Statistics: Threads: 15,501. Posts: 437,521 Both a skeletal survey, which consists of a series of radiographs of the skull, thorax, long bones, hands, feet, pelvis, and spine, and a radionucleotide bone scan are tools to reveal sites of past injury. Indications for a skeletal survey are any child less than 2 years of age with any evidence of abuse, any child less than 5 years of age with.

Multiple myeloma punched out lesion of the femur

Use and Utility of Skeletal Surveys to Evaluate for Occult

Choroid Osteoma in Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims Syndrome

Bone Survey OncoLin

Summary. Short stature (dwarfism) in children is defined as a height that is at least two standard deviations (SDs) below the mean for children of the same age and sex. In adults, the condition is commonly defined as a height of 5 ft 1 in (155 cm) or less in men and 4 ft 10 in (147 cm) or less in women.Nonpathological variant short stature can be classified into three types: familial short. A skeletal survey data entry module was developed in Oracle 11. The PL/SQL query language permits robust searches and complex reports. Utilizing the ASP.NET framework, the web-based system allows radiologists to enter, search and update initial, follow-up and summaries of skeletal surveys 2001 Objectives Both bone scans and skeletal surveys are used to diagnose bone fractures in children with a diagnosis of suspected physical abuse. We investigate the necessity of the combination of these two exams to rule out fractures in children less than one year of age. Methods Twenty cases were evaluated using both modalities of diagnostic exams (child bone survey and bone scan) Normal for age : Normal. Variants. These cases represent examples of what each sex should look like at various ages. The highlighted cells have examples. Skeletal survey : Bone Scan : 2M Bone scan : 14M Bone scan : 16M Bone scan: 17M Bone scan: 18M Bone scan: 19M Bone scan : Bone Scan: 78300/06: CT rib

Yield of Skeletal Survey by Age in Children Referred to

  1. X-ray Bone Age Survey. PA LEFT HAND(MAKE SURE HAND IS VERY FLAT) Quick Links. Weekly Updates. Questions. Exam Protocols. New Provider Info Sheet.
  2. If your bones are healthy, your doctor may suggest a scan after 15 years. This comes from a 2012 study that reported that bone loss in average women above 65 is quite slow i.e. a woman with normal bone density only loses 5% of bone density in 10 years. Women who show low or moderate density in the initial scan are likely to be more osteoporotic.
  3. 77072 X-rays for bone age 77073 X-rays, bone length studies 77074 X-rays, bone survey, limited 77075 X-rays, bone survey complete 77076 X-rays, bone survey, infant 77077 Joint survey, single view 77078 Ct bone density, axial 77079 Ct bone density, peripheral 77080 Dxa bone density, axial 77081 Dxa bone density/periphera
  4. Applying age- and fat mass-specific reference values avoids the methodological limitations of FFMI and appendicular SMI that both show an increase in connective tissue in relation to skeletal.
  5. D can help keep your bones strong. So can physical activity. Try to get at least 150
  6. Computers have been widely used in the field of medical research over the past few decades. One of the emerging researches in medical imaging is to estimate age of the live or dead human being. Bone Age Assessment (BAA) is directly proportional to Skeletal (Bone) growth assessment. The study for Age Estimation (AE) has been categorized into two: one from live human where the AE is analysed.
  7. The Utility Of Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys For Evaluation Of Children Less Than 1 Year Of Age With Minor Head Injuries And Low Suspicion For Physical Abuse Pratima Shanbhag MD, Kaaren Shebesta APRN, Suzanne Moody MPA, Kathi Makoroff MD, MEd, Meera Kotagal MD, MPH, Richard A. Falcone MD, MPH, MMM, Rebeccah L Brown, M
Flashcards - Child Abuse & the ED - What are some of theThe History Blog » 2010 » September

Skeletal survey (non-accidental injury) Radiology

  1. According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, 10 million Americans have this disease and 43 million are at risk. It is also estimated that half of all women over age 50 will break a bone because of osteoporosis and so will 1 in 4 men. With aging comes an increased risk of fractures as well as a reduced ability to recover from such injuries
  2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) members were invited to complete an online survey regarding bone age assessment. Respondents were asked to identify the methods used and their confidence with their technique for the following groups: Infants (<1 year old), 1- to 3-year-olds and 3- to 18-year-olds
  3. An enormous number of scientific research publications related to bone age assessment using deep learning are explored, studied, and presented in this survey. Furthermore, the emerging trends of this research domain have been analyzed and discussed. Finally, a critical discussion section on the limitations of deep-learning models has been.
  4. BoneXpert, an AI-based bone age assessment solution was introduced in 2008 . BoneXpert is an AI system that uses feature extraction techniques and calculates bone age by analyzing the left hand radiograph based on 13 bones (radius, ulna, and 11 short bones in fingers 1, 3, and 5)
  5. e the various bones of the skeleton. It is done to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone. A bone scan may also be used to follow the progress of treatment of certain conditions. A bone scan is a type of nuclear radiology procedure

Yield of skeletal survey by age in children referred to

  1. Average bone age differences among and within individual observers are given in Table 2. The average difference in bone age assessments among observers when chronologic age was known was 0.69 ± 0.48 years (range, 0.00-1.95 years). When the age was not known, the mean was 0.62±0.42 years (range, 0.00-1.83 years)
  2. The following age categories are recommended by the CDC for reducing the variability in the sample weights and therefore reducing the variance of the estimates: 20-39 years, 40-59 years, and ≥60 years. Tests for trends were calculated by including the midpoint of each survey period as a continuous variable in linear regression models
  3. eral density. The relationship between BMD and age was best described by the third-degree polynomial regression model (Figures 1 and 2).The relationship was characterized by three phases, namely, BMD increased between the ages of 18 and 25, followed by a steady period (aged between 25 and 45), and then gradually declined after the age of 45
  4. This is called a bone survey or skeletal survey. CT scan (Computed tomography scan) A CT scan uses x-rays taken from different angles, which are combined by a computer to make detailed pictures of the organs. Sometimes, this test can help tell if your bones have been damaged by myeloma. It can also be used to guide a biopsy needle into an area.
  5. For example, a lower leg bone (tibia) on vertebrate animals will have bulges at each end where the bone attached to cartilage and muscles at the shin and knee. The bulges have a specific shape. You can look at specific bones of animals (lizards, fish, etc.) on the internet for comparison to specimens you think might be bone
  6. javier larrea/age fotostock/Getty Images. According to Orthobullets, the life expectancy for someone with metastatic bone cancer is about six months. However, WebMD points out that this depends largely on age of the patient and how far along the disease is. The life expectancy for those with metastatic bone cancer depends on several factors.
  7. Bone is constantly changing - that is, old bone is removed and replaced by new bone. During childhood, more bone is produced than removed, so the skeleton grows in both size and strength. For most people, bone mass peaks during the third decade of life. By this age, men typically have accumulated more bone mass than women

Bone scan. A bone scan is a test that helps identify which bones have been affected by Paget's disease. The procedure is also a useful way to determine the extent and activity of the disease. In a bone scan, a safe amount of a radioactive substance is injected into the person's vein. The substance circulates through the bloodstream and. A. T. Al-Taani, Classification of Hand Bones for Bone age Assessment, ICECS-1996 H. Frisch, S. Riedl, T. Waldhor, Computer aided estimation of skeletal age and comparition with bone age evaluations by the Greulich-Pyle and tanner-whitehouse, Pediatr Radiol (1996) 26:226-23 Metastases are the most common malignant bone tumors. Metastases must be included in the differential diagnosis of any bone lesion, whether well-defined or ill-defined osteolytic or sclerotic in age > 40. Bone metastases have a predilection for hematopoietic marrow sites: spine, pelvis, ribs, cranium and proximal long bones: femur, humerus It is interesting to note that less than 10 percent of Americans exercise on a regular basis and the most sedentary group is over the age of 50. Exercise is important to bone, muscle, and joint.

Household survey methods frequently used in low/middle income countries (LMICs) simply ask time of death relative to pregnancy and thus measure pregnancy-related death. Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) By expressing maternal deaths per live birth, rather than per woman of reproductive age, the MM Rati The importance of the vascular supply for bone is well-known to orthopaedists but is still rather overlooked within the wider field of skeletal research. Blood supplies oxygen, nutrients and. Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were.

bone survey. A radiographic assessment of all of the bones of the body to identify foci of malignancy—e.g., multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis or symptomatic metastases. It is considered insensitive to screen for asymptomatic metastases. As outlined by the National Guideline Clearinghouse, bone surveys have a low diagnostic yield. A T score is a measurement that compares your bone density measurement with the bone density of a healthy 30-year-old. A low T score means you probably have some bone loss. Your results may show one of the following: A T score of -1.0 or higher. This is considered normal bone density. A T score between -1.0 and -2.5

Rad 111 test four - Radiography 111 with Floyd at Wake

Currently, we are in a warm interglacial that began about 11,000 years ago. The last period of glaciation, which is often informally called the Ice Age, peaked about 20,000 years ago. At that time, the world was on average probably about 10°F (5°C) colder than today, and locally as much as 40°F (22°C) colder Age relationship . Fractures in all of the 5 children under 4 months of age were due to abuse. Fracture site . Abuse n=7 . Non abuse (n=21) skull fracture . 3 . 2 . femoral . 4 . 4 . humeral . 5 . Radial/ulnar . 5 . Clavicle . 3 . Finger . 2 . Study quality : small study, population limited to infants. Skeletal survey in abused but not in non. Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, DEXA or DXA, uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body (usually the lower (or lumbar) spine and hips) to measure bone loss. It is commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis, to assess an individual's risk for developing osteoporotic. Testing your bone density -- how strong your bones are -- is the only way to know for sure if you have osteoporosis. The most widely used is a scan called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or. The objective of this study was to examine whether high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was associated with high skeletal muscle mass, taking into account the effects of sex and age among the participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) aged 40 years or older