Zinc and thyroid hormone

Essential for Immune Function, Growth and Repair of the Body. Bioavailable Supplements Promoting Your Health at the Cellular Level Since 1998 Scientific evidence shows that zinc plays a key role in the metabolism of thyroid hormones, specifically by regulating deiodinases enzymes activity, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis, as well as by modulating the structures of essential transcription factors involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones

Zinc Liquid Supplement - Liquid Bioavailabilit

Zinc supplementation appeared to have a favorable effect on thyroid hormone levels, particularly total T(3), and RMR. Zinc supplementation appeared to be directly responsible for the increase in plasma zinc and decline in serum ferritin concentrations in both subjects Thyroid hormones influence zinc metabolism by affecting zinc absorption and excretion. Additionally, zinc deficiency affects thyroid function Serum selenium concentration (Type 1 T4 deionidase contains selenium in the rat) was unchanged by Zn supplementation. Conclusion: Zn may play a role in thyroid hormone metabolism in low T3 patients and may in part contribute to conversion of T4 to T3 in humans

Action of zinc on longitudinal bone growth

The Role of Zinc in Thyroid Hormones Metabolis

  1. Zinc and other trace elements such as copper and selenium are required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, and deficiency of these can result in hypothyroidism. Conversely, thyroid hormones are essential for the absorption of zinc, and hence hypothyroidism can result in acquired zinc deficiency
  2. For instance, zinc is essential for healthy levels of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3). One study found that zinc-deficient rats had lower T3 and thyroxine levels compared to healthy controls. In addition, hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone content was reduced in the zinc-deficient animals compared to their healthy counterparts
  3. Zinc is involved to much more thyroid hormone metabolism such as hormone synthesis, receptor activity, conversion of T4 to T3, and production of carrier proteins. The low levels of zinc and high levels of leptin in obese individuals point to a critical relationship between zinc and leptin. Zinc is related to enzyme activity to melatonin synthesis
  4. Zinc is one of the elements required for thyroid hormone synthesis, which also include selenium and copper [i]. Moreover, zinc is crucially required for keeping a normal metabolism of thyroid hormones, in addition to maintaining a normal resting metabolic rate (RMR) [ii]. How does zinc affect the thyroid
  5. The first, and definitely most important, function of zinc is its role in something called T4 to T3 conversion. This conversion process, also referred to as peripheral thyroid conversion, is the process by which your body takes the inactive thyroid hor mone T4 and turns into the active thyroid hormone T3
  6. Zinc also helps your thyroid hormone receptors in your hypothalamus function properly, so it can accurately gauge whether or not you have sufficient thyroid hormone levels. Because of this, zinc deficiency can cause your body to decrease its thyroid hormone production when it thinks it has sufficient levels

Effect of zinc supplementation on thyroid hormone function

Relationship between serum zinc levels, thyroid hormones

Iodothyronine 5′ deiodinase, which is mainly responsible for peripheral T3 production, has recently been demonstrated to be a selenium (Se)-containing enzyme. The structure of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors contains Zinc (Zn) ions, crucial for the functional properties of the protein. In the elderly, reduced peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 with a lower T3/T4 ratio and overt. Zinc helps in the functioning of our immune system, so it also works hand-in-hand with thyroid medications. Moreover, zinc assists in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and the conversion of T4 to T3. Alongside selenium, zinc also improves thyroid function and hormone levels

Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in

Copper, Estrogen and Zinc: Hormone Imbalance Part 4 ⋆

Abstract. Both thyroid hormone (triiodo-L-thyronine, T 3) and zinc play important roles in growth and development.The T 3 receptor is thought to require zinc to adopt its biologically active conformation. Some of the effects of zinc deficiency, therefore, may be due to loss of zinc from the T 3 receptor and impairment of T 3 action. This possibility was investigated in growing rats by. Thyroid hormones play an important role in body homeostasis by facilitating metabolism of lipids and glucose, regulating metabolic adaptations, responding to changes in energy intake, and controlling thermogenesis. Proper metabolism and action of these hormones requires the participation of various nutrients. Among them is zinc, whose interaction with thyroid hormones is complex Question: Why zinc deficiency causes resistance to thyroid and sex hormones and vitamins A and D The answer to that is because the, because all of those things carry out their gene expression function by binding to nuclear receptors. And all of the nuclear receptors to DNA using zinc finger motifs. Zinc finger motif means Zinc is a key mineral that helps make thyroid releasing hormone 4 (TRH) in your brain, which then signals your pituitary to make thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Low zinc is associated with low T3 6 (active thyroid hormone) and a reduced ability to convert T4 to T3 7 (similar to the need for selenium)

Thyroid Px by Restorative Formulations

Minerals like zinc are extremely important to the health of the body, and certainly in thyroid health. They act as a spark plug to the cells. Minerals are responsible for enzymatic reactions, maintaining proper nerve conduction, aiding in contracting and relaxing muscles, regulating tissue growth, maintaining PH balance, aiding in nutrient transport within cells and a whole lot more Too little thyroid hormone can cause alterations to how we taste and smell, which will mess with your enjoyment of food big time! Notice your sense of smell has changed? I recommend a full thyroid panel, plus testing for zinc deficiency, which is also a common cause of changes in our ability to smell

Effects of thyroid hormone on erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase-I and zinc concentrations in vivo and in vitro: clinical usefulness of carbonic anhydrase-I and zinc concentrations in erythrocytes. Yoshida K(1). Author information: (1)Department of Clinical Biology and Hormonal Regulation, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan A properly functioning thyroid owes it all to zinc. It starts with the hypothalamus—the part of the brain that produces hormones that control weight and body temperature among many other bodily processes. The hypothalamus releases what's called the TRH hypothalamus hormone (a hormone that requires zinc). The TRH hormone stimulates the.

Zinc Deficiency Associated with Hypothyroidism: An

Abstract. Thyroid hormones play an important role in body homeostasis by facilitating metabolism of lipids and glucose, regulating metabolic adaptations, responding to changes in energy intake, and controlling thermogenesis. Proper metabolism and action of these hormones requires the participation of various nutrients. Among them is zinc, whose interaction with thyroid hormones is complex Zinc mostly works with our liver and is very helpful with conversion hormones as T4 thyroid hormone converts to T3. Read More Additionally there seem to be interactions between these four minerals and copper and zinc , which are two metallic minerals with critical thyroid functions

Effects of Zinc on Thyroid - Thyroid Adviso

Zinc is essential trace element for normal levels of thyroid hormones such as triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ( Table 1 ). Some of the studies showed that zinc deficiency leads decrease in T3 level. The well known effect of zinc on some endocrine glands such as pituitary- a master gland and. Zinc is a trace mineral required for thyroid hormone synthesis amongst other vital processes that upregulates antioxidants and a healthy immune response. A clinical study of a woman with zinc deficiency and hypothyroidism exhibited dry and scaly skin lesions, hair loss, weakness, lack of appetite and possible depression The production of thyroid hormones requires iodine and omega-3 fatty acids; converting the inactive T4 to the active T3 requires selenium; and both the binding of T3 to the receptor on the nucleus and switching it on require vitamins A and D, as well as zinc For the thyroid hormone receptor, removal of zinc in vitro prevents receptor binding to DNA (Miyamoto et al. 1991). Numerous proteins, notably enzymes and transcription factors, bind zinc and are thought to be dependent upon zinc for function ( Vallee and Falchuk 1993 )

Zinc accelerates thyroidal function and copper slows it down. When copper gets deficient, the thyroid produces excessive hormone and hyperthyroidism results. The balance of zinc and copper is important in maintaining normal thyroid function and the proper ratio seems to be about 5:1 for females and 10:1 or higher for males Magnesium, vitamin B-12, and zinc are also required to make this particular hormone. These three micronutrients (magnesium, B-12, zinc) and this major macronutrient (protein) are all responsible for helping us to properly produce TSH

Zinc is another trace mineral and a common deficiency in people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This is because Hashimoto's can cause low levels of stomach acid, making the absorption of minerals like zinc very difficult. This is problematic because zinc is required for thyroid hormone synthesis, therefore a deficiency can make Hashimoto's. Thyroid hormones, which regulate how the body uses energy, are secreted by the thyroid gland in the neck. The two main hormones the thyroid produces and releases are T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). Zinc is found in nuts, seeds, lentils, yogurt, ricotta cheese, and wild rice Zinc is also the second most abundant element in the body second only to iron. You must have adequate zinc levels to properly metabolize vitamin D and vitamin A, both of which are vital for thyroid health. Proper thyroid hormone levels are required for zinc absorption and metabolism, and zinc is required for healthy thyroid function Thyroid hormone and testosterone levels of all subjects were determined as resting and exhaustion before and after zinc supplementation. Results Resting TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels of subjects were higher than the parameters measured after exhaustion exercise before zinc supplementation (p<0.05)

Review: The role of zinc in the endocrine syste

  1. Almost as important for the functioning of the thyroid gland as iodine is the intake of zinc and selenium. If there is a deficiency, the organ cannot produce enough hormones. Selenium is mainly found in sesame, barley, sunflower seeds, meat and fish. The DGE recommends a daily intake of 60-70 µg
  2. The thyroid hormone receptor has been cloned, and protein analysis has shown a region containing Zinc (Zn) ions crucial for binding the receptors to their target genes (3). Thus, it has been postulated that Zn status may be important for the full bio- logical functioning of T3 (4)
  3. DOI: 10.1007/BF02790145 Corpus ID: 19140463. Selenium, zinc, and thyroid hormones in healthy subjects @article{Olivieri2007SeleniumZA, title={Selenium, zinc, and thyroid hormones in healthy subjects}, author={O. Olivieri and D. Girelli and A. Stanzial and L. Rossi and A. Bassi and R. Corrocher}, journal={Biological Trace Element Research}, year={2007}, volume={51}, pages={31-41}
  4. A. Individuals with low vita
  5. The following nutrients are required for proper thyroid hormone production: Iron -> Also improves thyroid function at the cellular level. Iodine -> Required for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Tyrosine -> May improve thyroid hormone production. Zinc -> Zinc + Selenium boost thyroid conversion in the peripheral tissues
  6. I. INTRODUCTION. Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates metabolic processes essential for normal growth and development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult (28, 40, 189).It is well established that thyroid hormone status correlates with body weight and energy expenditure (80, 127, 143).Hyperthyroidism, excess thyroid hormone, promotes a hypermetabolic state characterized by increased resting.
  7. es how the immune system works. It must be present for T4 conversion to T3. L-Tyrosin

A TSH blood test should be done 12 weeks after starting estrogen therapy to check your thyroid hormone levels. Estrogen, which is available as a pill, injection, or different skin preparations (like a cream, gel, or patch), can affect your thyroid medication. Women taking estrogen therapy may need more Synthroid or levothyroxine acute exercise significantly increased thyroid hormone levels, which was the result of exhaustion (Berchtold et al. 1978). An overall evaluation of the available information on this topic reveals that there is a relation between zinc and exercise; exercise, thyroid hormones, and testosterone; and zinc, thyroid hormones, and testosterone. The ai

Cinar V. The effects of magnesium supplementation on thyroid hormones of sedentars and Tae-Kwon-Do sportsperson at resting and exhaustion. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007;28(5):708-12. Baydas B, Karagos S, Meral I. Effects of oral zinc and magnesium supplementation on serum thyroid hormone and lipid levels in experimentally induced diabetic rats Zinc. Zinc is needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones in the body, and a 2018 study found these supplements to have some benefit for women with hypothyroidism who are overweight and obese. 5  A deficiency of zinc can also lead to hypothyroidism and other autoimmune diseases Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) occurs when your body has low levels of these hormones. In other words, the thyroid glands are not producing enough T3 and T4 to maintain equilibrium. Hyperthyroidism is the opposite, and this is when you have an overactive thyroid. Thyroid support supplements can restore healthy thyroid function naturally Thyroid hormone influences the force and speed of your heartbeat, your blood pressure, and your cholesterol level. As a result, a malfunctioning thyroid gland can cause problems that masquerade as heart disease or make existing heart disease worse. An estimated 6% of people in the United States have thyroid disease Adequate levels of both iodine and selenium are required for optimal thyroid hormone metabolism. Thyroxine (T4) is produced by the thyroid gland in ample amounts, but is relatively biologically inactive. Therefore, triiodothyronine (T3), the biologically active thyroid hormone, must be produced by a hormone conversion process, converting T4 to T3

FOCUS LIKE A HAWK with Vitamin B-12, Copper, Zinc, Iodine, & Selenium helping clear away the Brain Fog of an energy starved brain. CURBS WEIGHT GAIN caused by low basal metabolism due to low thyroid secretions. Get your thyroid hormones in sync to work harmoniously with your Weight Loss Action Plan The gland produces and secretes two hormones, including Thyroxine, considered a prohormone, and Triiodothyronine considered the active hormone of the Thyroid gland. There is a connection between Thyroid gland malfunction and many diseases and disorders, including obesity , some forms of cancer, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease. - Zinc is required to be able to convert the thyroid hormone T4 into T3, and T3 being the active thyroid hormone, optimal zinc levels or zinc supplementation can help with thyroid hormone metabolism. Studies have shown that zinc supplementation improves thyroid hormone production and that zinc, in the case of Hashimoto's, can help reduce. Most of the physiological actions of thyroid hormones are mediated by binding of $3,5,3\sp\prime$-L-triiodothyronine (T3) to a specific class of nuclear receptor proteins, known as thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). The DNA binding domain of TRs contains highly conserved Zn-coordinated structures with cysteine residues which predict a structural and functional role of Zn for the receptors

Zinc and Thyroid Relationship Thyroid Basic

  1. Correction to: Relation Between Zinc and Thyroid Hormones in Humans: a Systematic Review. Jéssica Batista Beserra 1, Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais 1, Juliana Soares Severo 1, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz 1, Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira 1, Gilberto Simeone Henriques 2 & Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro 1,
  2. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the roles of zinc in regulation of thyroid hormones metabolism, and their importance in the treatment of several diseases associated with thyroid gland dysfunction. Study Information. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Jul;89(1-2):80-88. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000262..
  3. (1992). Zinc Affects the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Children with Down's Syndrome: Normalization of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and of Reversal Triiodothyronine Plasmic Levels by Dietary Zinc Supplementation. International Journal of Neuroscience: Vol. 65, No. 1-4, pp. 259-268
  4. Zinc plays a huge role in regulating your hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, leptin, thyroid hormone, melatonin, and sex hormones. Getting enough zinc is important for the functioning of your endocrine system. When it isn't, your various organs and systems can't communicate well,.
  5. Zinc - thyroid hormone receptor needs zinc to assume the correct form. [1] The part of the receptor that contains zinc is actually called a zinc finger and is essential for grabbing and holding on to thyroid hormone. One this binding happens, the receptor-hormone complex goes on to stimulate the cellular metabolism. If the receptor.

How Zinc Boosts Thyroid Function + What Form to us

Zinc also helps thyroid hormone communicate with cell receptors. Without these key nutrients, your thyroid's ability to function can be severely compromised. B vitamins are required for the body to synthesize thyroid hormone. If you're deficient in these, you will not produce enough thyroid hormone Along with iron, getting enough zinc is essential to thyroid function. Low levels of zinc can cause T4, T3, and the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to also become low, Mashru says. Oysters are one of the best sources of zinc, packing in 5.3 mg per medium oyster Zinc. Zinc is involved in the conversion of T4 to T3. It's an important nutrient if you appear to have problems with thyroid-hormone conversion. In one study, participants who took zinc sulphate for 12 months had T3 levels come into the normal range Furthermore, zinc is required at the intracellular level to help the thyroid nuclear receptors attach and drive the reading of the DNA genetic code. Remember, a primary function of thyroid hormone is to help put the genetic code into action, which underscores the importance of maintaining proper zinc levels [source: Shames]

Zinc is a trace mineral that aids our immune systems in battling infection and helps create the proteins needed for muscles, strong bones, tissue, and blood. It also helps maintain good eye heath. Zinc is essential for immunity, hormone balance, mood and brain function, children's development, digestion, thyroid health and eye function Zinc Deficiency. Without the existence of zinc in the body the thyroid cannot convert the less active hormone T4 to the active hormone T3. The hypothalamus also depends upon zinc to make the hormone it uses to cue the pituitary gland to switch on the thyroid. Too little zinc may lead to a low functioning thyroid Examples of zinc finger proteins include the superfamily of nuclear receptors that bind and respond to steroids and other molecules, such as estrogens, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, and vitamin A. Zinc finger motifs in the structure of nuclear receptors allow them to bind to DNA and act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression (see. Supplementing with zinc for four weeks had positive effects on plasma zinc, testosterone production and thyroid hormone status. When we're low on zinc, insulin cannot do it's job properly and blood sugar becomes disregulated. Age and zinc absorption. It is known that as we age, our zinc absorption goes down even with sufficient intake from. The following nutrients boost proper thyroid conversion: Zinc and Selenium The whole human well-being is depended on thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland is the sole source of T4 and the source of only 10 to 20% of T3. The remaining 80 to 90% of T3 comes from the conversion of T4 to T3 by organs such as the liver, kidneys, brain, and skin

Using The Mighty Zinc To Balance Your Hormone

  1. This shows that zinc may be playing a role in thyroid hormone metabolism and may in part contribute to conversion of T 4 to T 3 [30, 31]. It has also been seen that zinc supplementation in the diet, which was originally proposed to restore some immune functions [ 32 ], could improve thyroid function as indicated by the reduction in TSH values.
  2. T4 is the thyroid storage hormone. It's meant to convert to the active thyroid hormone T3 and that's a good thing when it's going on behind the scene. But we learned the hard way that the body is NOT meant to live for T4 ALONE in our treatment. REVERSE T3 (RT3): This is the inactive hormone
  3. C, zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases. This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401.
  4. A. The aim of this study was to deter
  5. Zinc is used in the construction of TSH which regulates the production of thyroid hormone. A deficiency of zinc can result in a reduction of TSH and subsequent decline in thyroid function. Hormone Receptivity. Reduced zinc values may contribute to poor hormone receptivity. T3 receptors in cells throughout the body require zinc to function properly
  6. eral your thyroid needs for proper functioning. Zinc, like selenium and iron, is needed for the conversion of inactive T4 to active T3. It also has the unique ability to regulate your thyroid gland by notifying it when hormone levels get too low
  7. It is an antioxidant that helps repairs cells, protects DNA synthesis, reduce free radicals, promote thyroid function, helps fight infection, and prevents cognitive decline. Zinc promotes muscle growth recovery, cellular growth, skeletal and muscular systems, testosterone and High release, protects your liver, and lowers levels of liver damage.

Amin et al. Thyroid Hormone in Computer Workers and the Role of Zinc Supplementation _____ _____ Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2016 Jun 15; 4(2):296-301. 297 gland and thyroid gland as well as of the pancreas, testicles and ovaries to EMFs had been investigated [11]. One of the most exposed and vital organs are the thyroid gland Natural thyroid support can reduce fatigue, brain fog, lack of focus. Get the right mix of full-spectrum thyroid supporting extracts for energy and metabolism. Super ingredients Organic KSM-66® Ashwagandha, Zinc, Selenium, and Iodine provid potent energy support to help with your daily activities where focus is essential Affected men may also suffer from insomnia, impotence, infertility and personality changes like meekness, low self esteem and anxiety. Low levels often indicate a zinc deficiency. Normal estrogen levels in men support the reproductive process, maintain weight, encourage a healthy thyroid and prevent heart disease and heart attacks

Your Thyroid Needs 9 Minerals - Dr

Zinc is a necessary trace element for the catalytic activity of several enzymes involved in the metabolism of hormones. Zinc effects on thyroid hormones are complex and include both synthesis and mechanism of action. Zinc with cysteine residues is present in thyroid transcription factors that are necessary for modulation of gene expression In turn, if too much cooper is in the body, then this can lead to a malfunctioning thyroid, due to irregular hormone activity. These issues can lead to hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. So, finding a good balance of cooper is important for you and your thyroid gland. If zinc is being taken, make sure you add a supplement of copper as well.

Zinc and thyroid health — BOOST Thyroid: Hashimoto's and

Zinc is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, and thyroid hormones are essential for the absorption of zinc. Men 19 years of age and older should consume a recommended 11 milligrams of zinc a day, and women of the same age group should consume eight milligrams a day Thyroid supplements support the function of your thyroid, which is a small organ in your neck that produces hormones that are critical to maintaining healthy energy levels, weight, and mood. A thyroid that's overactive or underactive can create fatigue, weakness, tiredness, depression, and other mood disturbances. While outright thyroid disease requires medical care, certain supplements [ from $24.95. Women's Hormone Balance. All-Natural Female Vitality Booster. $39.95. Save $5. Thyroid Health Kit. Specialized Nutrition for a Healthy Thyroid. Regular price $89.85 Sale price $84.85. Save $5.80

How To Lose Weight With An Underactive Thyroid: Your 6

Zinc and Thyroid Relationship - Thyroid Centra

Selenium acts as a thyroid antioxidant and is vital for the production of thyroid hormone and it is involved in the conversion of T4 (least active thyroid hormone) to T3 (most active form). One clear pattern on you thyroid labs that can indicate selenium deficiency is a high or high/normal Free T4 but low or low/normal Free T3 with a. Thyroid Hormone Biosynthesis (the creation of thyroid hormone) These 3 steps help your body not only create thyroid hormone but also allow that thyroid hormone to be active at the cellular level. Due to nutrient deficiencies, poor diet, and soil depletion, many patients may end up with sub-optimal levels of these specific and unique ingredients Preliminary evidence suggests ashwagandha may increase thyroid hormone levels, and so should be used with caution in people taking thyroid hormones, or people with hyperthyroidism. Be aware that high doses of biotin (as found in some B-complexes or supplements for hair and nails ) may interfere with certain thyroid laboratory tests Thyroid Hormones Activation: In addition, these hormones must be activated. This activates their natural advantages. To this end, three important nutrients are included in the mix. These include selenium, magnesium, and zinc. Thyroid Hormone release: After all, these hormones are released into the body. Thanks to this, the body's metabolism.

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Serum levels of ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, zinc, thyroid stimulating hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were evaluated in all participants retrospectively. Results: Serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, zinc and thyroid stimulating hormone were similar in the two groups Traditional health practitioners screen thyroid function by looking at one main lab value called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The pituitary gland in your brain releases TSH which then tells your thyroid gland to make thyroid hormone (abbreviated T4). However, your body must convert T4 into T3 (the active form) in order to use it Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Problems. In the case of hypothyroidism, your body literally slows down. This is why symptoms like weight gain, brain fog and sluggishness are common.Hyperthyroidism causes the opposite effect — almost a sped-up metabolism, to the point that your heart may beat faster and you may have a hard time eating properly or keeping enough weight on Thyroid Support Complex with Iodine - Healthy Thyroid Function, Immune System, Energy Levels, Thyroid Hormone Levels, & Metabolism - 180 Capsules 4.5 out of 5 stars 101 $17.99 $ 17 . 9 A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn 2+) in order to stabilize the fold.It was originally coined to describe the finger-like appearance of a hypothesized structure from the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) transcription factor IIIA.However, it has been found to encompass a wide variety of differing protein.