Engineering drawing instruments PDF

Wolfgang Holnthoner - Tissue Engineerin

Vascularization for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine available on SpringerLink. Includes contributions from the TERMIS communit In Engineering Drawing, we have to draw and understand the largest buildings on a drawing sheet, not by reducing the dimensions but by reducing the scale. To measure any component, we need a set of Drawing Instruments in Engineering Drawing which are presented below

Engineering Drawing Instruments and Their Usage [PDF

1.1.03 Engineering drawing sheets 5 1.1.04 Method of folding of printed drawing sheets as per BIS SP: 46-2003 7 1.2.05 Drawing instruments - their standard and uses 9 1.2.06 Setsqaures, scale, french curves 11 1.2.07 Drawing Instruments - box and pencils 14 1.3.08 Lines - definition and applications 1 6.6 DRAWING INSTRUMENT SET Drawing instrument set commonly used for technical drawings. 6.6.1 The compass is used to draw circles and arcs of varying diameters. The lead in a compass is sharpened to a bevel using sandpaper. A beam is a special attachment to a regular compass and is used to draw large circles and arcs Books/references 1. Dhananjay A Jolhe, Engineering drawing, TMH, 2008 2. M.B. Shah and B.C. Rana, Engineering Drawing, Pearsonson, 2009. 3. N D Bhatt and V M Panchal.

Instrument drawing Instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and curves concisely and accurately. Thus, the drawings are usually made to scale. Example: Line conventions in engineering drawing . Good practice . Exercise •Complete three orthographic views of the object shown on the next slide DRAWING INSTRUMENTS Chapter - 1A AND THEIR USES Drawing Instruments are used to prepare neat and accurate Drawings. To a greater extent, the ac- curacy of the Drawings depend on the quality of instruments used to prepare them. The following is the list of Drawing Instruments and other materials required ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGS Volume 1 of 2 U.S. Department of Energy FSC-6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This Portable Document Format (PDF) file contains bookmarks, thumbnails, and hyperlinks to help you navigate through the document ENGINEERING DRAWING AND RELATED DOCUMENTATION PRACTICES Types and Applications of Engineering Drawings ASME Y14.24M-1989 ~ The American Society of ® Mechanical Engineers '-----345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017 I

engineering drawing practice for schools 81 colleges bureau ofindianstandards manak bhavan, 9 bahadur shah zafar marg new delhi 110002 . sp 46 : 1988 first published march 1989 first reprint december 1990 second reprint september 1992 third reprint october 1998 0 bureauof indianstandards. measuring instruments were developed in parallel with the development of electrical engineering. However, some physical laws were derived based on measurement results, such as the Biot-Savart law, when in 1820, the French scientists Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart established the relation - 3 - ANSI/ISA-5.1-2009 Preface (informative) This preface is included for information purposes and is not part of ANSI/ISA-5.1-2009. This standard has been prepared as part of the service of ISA, The International Society of Automation Importance of Engineering Drawing. Drawing plays vital role in the engineering and construction works. The drawing requires no language any one can read it. So, drawings of other countries structures can also be studied easily. The drawing improves the imagination and new inventions can be developed

ENGINEERING DRAWING N1 (8090261) 22 March 2016 (X-Paper) 09:00-13:00 REQUIREMENTS: ONE A2 Drawing Sheet Calculators and drawing instruments may be used. This question paper consists of 5 pages and 4 diagram sheets Engineering Drawing Instruments and Their Usage [PDF] In this paper, I am going to familiarize you with the Engineering Drawing Instrument. So let's dive into the article. Engineering Drawing Plays a crucial role in the life of Every Mechanical Engineering student because he has to bear that subject throughou Thus, the engineering drawing is the universal language of all engineers. 1.1.2 Importance of graphic language The graphic language had its existence when it became necessary to build new structures and create new machines or the like, in addition to representing the existing ones. In the absence of graphic language, th


  1. representation of engineering objects such as machine components, dams, roads, buildings, electronic components, computers, motors, generators etc. An ideal and good drawing should have neat and clean, accurate and beautiful presentation. For such drawing, it is important to use good quality of instruments, pencils, sheets by the skilled draft man
  2. 1.2 STATE how the grid system on an engineering drawing is used to locate a piece of equipment. 1.3 STATE the three types of information provided in the revision block of an engineering drawing. 1.4 STATE the purpose of the notes and legend section of an engineering drawing. 1.5 LIST the five drawing categories used on engineering drawings
  3. Lecture 1 Introduction Time: M _ W _ _ 10:15 - 11:30 Credits: 3.5 Session: Fall 2013 MECH 211, Mechanical Engineering Drawing WELCOME T
  4. To prepare a drawing, one can use manual drafting instruments (figure 12) or computer-aided drafting or design, or CAD. The basic drawing standards and conventions are the same regardless of what design tool you use to make the drawings. In learning drafting, we will approach it from the perspective of manual drafting
  5. The GSFC Engineering Drawing Standards Manual is the official source for the requirements and interpretations to be used in the development and presentation of engineering drawings and related documentation for the GSFC. The Mechanical Engineering Branch, Mechanical Systems Division, has been delegate

communication (technical/engineering drawing) may prove irreplaceably useful. Drawing (just like photography) is one of the basic forms of visual communication. Drawing is used to record objects and actions of everyday life in an easily recognizable manner. There are two major types of drawings: artistic drawings and technical drawings Fig. 4.23 Drawing of an Ellipse Md. Roknuzzaman, Department of Civil Engineering, HSTU Page 36 fExercise and Assignments 1. Divide a line of length 40mm into 7 equal parts. 2. Draw a circle touching three points A, B and C with coordinates A (0,0), B (0,20) and C (15,0). 3 Engineering Drawing course and in minimizing discrepancies prevailing among the different teaching and training health institutions. It can also be used as a reference material for professional sanitarians. The graphics of engineering design and construction may very well be the most important course of all studies for a 1.1.03 Views of engineering drawing sheets 5 1.1.04 Method of folding of printed drawing sheets as per BIS SP: 46-2003 7 Drawing Instrument 1.2.05 Drawing instruments - Drawing board, T - square, drafter (drafting machine) 9 1.2.06 Drawing instruments - Setsquares, protractor and scale 11 1.2.07 Drawing Instruments box and pencils 12 Free hand. Download as PDF. For the preparation of any drawing work, it is quite essential to use instruments correctly and accurately, in order to get the required degree of accuracy. But the accuracy of the drawing depends largely on the quality of the instruments to be used. Drawing Instruments for Engineering Drawing T Square

Instruments Used in Engineering Drawing -its Uses and

List Of Engineering Drawing Tools | Drawing Instrument. Engineering drawing is the language of engineers and technicians. The accuracy and neatness of engineering drawing depends on the quality of the instruments used. With good instruments, the drawing can be prepared easily, quickly and accurately Technical drawing instruments are the tools used by professional and student drafters to render the precision graphics needed to manufacture a product or structure. These instruments take many forms because of the variety of lines and graphics needed for designs. Some instruments are manual, while others are computer-based Engineering Drawing TextBook & Notes Pdf. On this page, we have given all the details about the Engineering Drawing Textbook by ND Bhatt and the pdf download links for easy access to study at the time of Btech 1st year and diploma examinations. Therefore, check out the information provided here and gain full knowledge of the ED subject

Types of Measuring Instruments and their Uses in

A2: Primary means of graphic communication which is used in engineering work is called multi view orthographic projection. To convey ideas, shapes, dimension, procedures, for the manufacture or the construction, drawings are used in engineering. Orthographic projection is the basis of all descriptive geometry procedures Drawing instruments • Depending on the practice condition • Basic representations performed by free hand sketching - require paper and pencil • To-scale sketching requires drafting tools • Component design - CADS tools -Changes could be fast operated -Solid model is created -Analysis is carried out with minimal effor 1.1 Drawing Instruments and their uses Standard sizes of drawing sheets (ISO-A series Letters and numbers (single stroke vertical) Convention of lines and their applications. Engineering Drawing and Graphics + AutoCAD (K. Venugopal), New Age Publication, Reprint 2006. 8. Engineering Drawing Practice for schools and colleges Spec Breaks •A Line /Code changes every time ANY ELEMENT in the code changes IE 3AARX-304L S/S-1F --> 3AARX-304L S/S at the point where the fluid has cooled enough to eliminate the insulation. 3AARX-304L S/S-1F 3AARX-304L S/

General method of drawing any polygon Draw AB = given length of polygon At B, Draw BP perpendicular & = AB Draw Straight line AP With center B and radius AB, draw arc AP. The perpendicular bisector of AB meets st. line AP and arc AP in 4 and 6 respectively. Draw circles with centers as 4, 5,&6 and radii as 4B, 5B, & 6B and inscribe a square engineering skill. Construction and fire protection equipment drawings must be interpreted with a high degree of accuracy. Student Performance Objective Given an architect or engineer scale and a set of scaled drawings, you will be able to select the correct scale (tool) and interpret dimensions with 100 percent accuracy. Enabling Objective 111 Pictorial Drawing Perspective Drawing Definitions Refer to Figure 12-40 Sight lines which lead from the points on the card and converge at the eye are called visual rays. The picture plane is the plane on which the card is drawn. The station plane is the point from which the observer is looking at the card 5.5 Measuring Instruments 73 5.5.1 Manometers 73 5.5.2 Diaphragms, capsules, and bellows 75 5.5.3 Bourdon tubes 77 5.5.4 Other pressure sensors 79 5.5.5 Vacuum instruments 79 5.6 Application Considerations 80 5.6.1 Selection 80 5.6.2 Installation 80 5.6.3 Calibration 81 Summary 81 Problems 82 vi Content

Drawing Instruments. The Drawing Board. The D2 or D3 drawing boards are usually used in polytechnics and engineering colleges. Drawing boards are made of well-seasoned softwood such as Oak or Pine. The standard sizes of drawing boards as per BIS (1444-1977) are given in the table. The Drawing Shee Section 1 - Basic Instruments Loop Diagram Symbols and P&IDs P&IDs AND LOOP DIAGRAMS P&IDs and loop diagrams are construction and documentation drawings that depict the flow of the process and illustrate the instrumentation control and measurement interactions, wiring and connections to the process As the Engineering Graphics and Design (EGD) is a compulsory national PAT formal assessment taskthat contributes 25% (i.e. 100 marks) towards a learner 's final NSC mark, it is essentially the third NSC examination paper of EGD. All the • The quality and neatness of free- hand, instrument and CAD drawings Detail drawings seldom describe the intent of an engineering design. An engineering design is usually defined by many individual detail drawings which combine to form an assembly drawing. The name and or drawing number of the assembly drawing in which the detail drawing is called up or used on is stated in the title block

Engineering Drawing Questions and Answers - Drawing Tools and their Uses - 1 1. How many battens will be there for a Drawing board? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 Answer: b Explanation: Generally drawing board has dimensions of 1000 x 1500, 700 x 1000, 500 x 700, 350 mm x 500 mm, and made of well-seasoned soft wood, so there would be n • Trix FastDoc is a Web-hosted Engineering Document Management service that provides storage, revision control and secure distribution. • Trix Organizer Standard is Engineering Document Management software to install on your own servers. • Trix Organizer Industry Selections provide Technical Dat Introduction to Engineering Tolerance I De nition: The allowable deviation from a standard. I Tolerance is the total amount a dimension may vary and is the di erence between the upper (maximum) and lower (minimum) limits. I Types of Tolerance: Dimensional and Geometrical I Allowance for a speci c variation in the size of part is called Dimensional Tolerance. I Allowance for a speci c variation.

Design Handbook: Engineering Drawing and Sketching

Engineering Symbology, Prints, & Drawings Logic Diagrams 10 This device, although occasionally used on component and system type logic diagrams, is principally used in solid state logic diagrams (computers). Binary counter - Several types of binary counters exist, all of which are constructed of We offer drafting products that stand the test of time, like drafting equipment by Alvin, a well-known industry leader. Our product line includes portable drawing boards, blueprint measuring tools, student drawing boards, drawing reference tables, professional drafting tables, drafting kits, drafting table lamps, drafting machines, drafting chairs, drafting stools, drafting triangles, t. ENGINEERING DRAWING N2 (8090272) 15 November 2016 (X-Paper) 09:00-13:00 REQUIREMENTS: ONE A2 DRAWING SHEET Calculators may be used. Candidates need drawing instruments This question paper consists of 7 pages

(PDF) Engineering Drawing for Beginners Md

! 3! ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION DRAWING The following statements will help you understand Orthographic Projection Drawings. 1. An Orthographic Projection Drawing is an important part of the engineering process.It shows the correct shape and the exact dimensions necessary to manufacture the object. 2. An Orthographic Projection Drawing may consist of two or more views To help locate a specific point on a referenced print, most drawings, especially Piping and Instrument Drawings (P&ID) and electrical schematic drawings, have a grid system. The grid can consist of letters, numbers, or both that run horizontally and vertically around the drawing as illustrated on Figure 2 Engineering Graphics Notes Pdf - EG Notes Pdf starts with the topics covering Concepts and conventions, importance of graphics in engineering applications, geometrical drawing, drawing instruments and materials, mini drafter, drawing papers, drawing pencils, layout of drawing sheet, etc 5. Instructing production line assemblers on build guidance and drawing content as required 6. Generation, revision, and maintenance of Engineering drawings and parts lists 7. Authoring of Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) in support of product updates 8. Creation of detailed drawings for use by outside vendors to fabricate parts 9 Introduction to Engineering Graphics, Drawing Instruments, Drawing Sheets, Lettering, Dimensioning, Geometrical Construction Online, PPT (MSTeam) 2 4 Introduction to AutoCAD Online Demo on AutoCAD 3 4 Orthographic Projection, Projection of Points Online - AutoCAD (MSTeam) 4 AutoCAD12 Projection of Straight Lines Online - PPT an

Drawing Instruments for Engineering Drawing - PDF for ALP

RQ Module 1 Introduction to Engineering Drawing.pdf - MODULE 1 Introduction to Engineering Drawing PROTECH 2CA3 CAD For Design Fall 2015 McMaster-Mohawk. Instrument Drawing: Different drafting instruments are used to draw line, circle and curves precisely and accurately. Math & geometry sets. More. 2 clicks for more privacy: This button is only activated when you click here. You can then recommend STAEDTLER on Facebook. Data is already sent to Facebook on activation of this button. nicht mit Facebook verbunden. Recommend. 2 clicks for more privacy: This button is only activated when you click here Instrument Hookup Drawings. Vendor Drawings for PSV, Control Valves, Flow Meters, Level Instruments, Pressure Instruments, Temperature Instruments etc. Cable Tray Drawings. From Vessels/Mechanical Department. Equipment Data Sheets for Vessels. Vendor Drawings for Vessels and Machines. From Civil / Structural Engineering Department. Structural. Lettering is an important part of any engineering drawing (ED). The purpose of learning Lettering in ED is to practice simple and standard way of writing any..

List Of Engineering Drawing Tools Drawing Instrumen

Topic: Drawing Instruments and Materials. Technical Drawing. Technical drawing is a universal language used for communication among technical people. These are engineers, technicians, designers, builders, etc. It is a language expressed in terms of graphic illustrations which convey the idea of shape, size and other features of engineering. For general engineering drawings, the types of lines recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards shown in table 2 must be used. The thickness of the lines must be chosen according to the type and size of the drawing from any of the six groups given in Table 1 The Purpose of Engineering Drawings. As already said, such a technical drawing has all the information for manufacturing a part or welding and building an assembly.The info includes dimensions, part names and numbers, etc. So once a manufacturing engineer gets the drawing, he can start the production process without a second thought An engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing that is used to convey information about an object. A common use is to specify the geometry necessary for the construction of a component and is called a detail drawing. Usually, a number of drawings are necessary to completely specify even a simple component

engineering drawing and design profession. c. Identify the employment opportunities in the engineering drawing and design profession. d. Match engineering drawing and design occupational job titles with qualifications and responsibilities. e. Identify education and training required to work in the various engineering drawing and design careers A deliverable is a document that is prepared by one department and used by another department for the execution of a project. Some deliverables are dependent on other deliverables, so for preparation of dependent deliverables first needs to complete the interconnected deliverables 1-9. Drawing papers 1-10. Drawing pencils 1-11. Eraser (Rubber) 1-12. (15)Drawing pins, Clips or adhesive tapes 1-13. Sand-paper block 1-14. (1)Duster 1-15. Drafting machine 1-16. Roll-N-Draw 1-17. General suggestions for drawing a sheet (1) Cleaning the instruments (2) Pinning the paper to the drawing board (3) Border lines (4) Spacing of. b. Select any P&ID drawing from the list, then click OK. 5. Click Yes when prompted if you want to add new tag number. 6. On the New Tag Number dialog type-in the new instrument name 101-FE -301 (pay attention to the fixed text and the hyphens) and click OK. 7. On the Select Instrument Type dialog select FE - D/P TYPE FLOW ELEMENT (Flow) and. and instrumentation diagrams offer a simplistic view on heavily quantified engineering developments, bridging the gap between process consultant engineers and construction entities. P&IDs are regarded as a flow pattern, outlining the line, valve, equipment, and instrument specifications aid engineers in developing full scale processes of all sorts

Technical Drawing Instruments & Their Uses eHo

MEM09002B - Interpret technical drawing Topic 1 - Engineering Drawings BlackLine Design Page | 13 1st September 2014 - Version 2 1.2 Standards: Standardization is the process of formulating and applying rules for an orderly approach to a specific activity for the benefit and with the cooperation of all concerned, and i drawing to specify information for a specific feature of a component or assembly. The feature being referenced is indicated through the use of a leader line. The leader line points to the feature in question and terminates at the note. One common example of a local note is the specification of the size dimension of a hole feature Instruments should only be checked under favorable conditions. Only the adjustments described in the manual for the instrument should be made in the field or shop. Do not field strip (dismantle) instruments. Major Adjustments When an instrument has been damaged or otherwise requires major adjustments, contact the Construction Bureau Engineering & Design: Geometric Dimensioning Fig. 5-3 Primary, secondary, tertiary features & datum planes. 4 Datum Reference Frame (DRF): The DRF is probably the most important concept of GD&T. In order to manufacture and/or inspect a part to a drawing , the three (3) plane concept is necessary. Three (3) mutuall Double lines indicate the instrument is at an auxiliary location away from the process Symbols with a single dashed line indicate the instrument is located be-hind a panel and not easily accessible. Examples of instruments, PLC and control panels: ISA - Instrument Functions and Identifications: The ISA standard covers the identification of in

Piping & Instrument Diagram (P&ID) or Process Flow Engineering Scheme (PEFS) Process & Instrument Diagram Visit Today - www.hardhatengineer.com. Subscribe Now ! Visit Today - www.hardhatengineer.com. P&ID and PFD drawing symbols and legend list Author: HardHat Enginee Sketching is a free-wheeling type of informal drawing that helps inspire the basic design of an object before advancing to the more exacting scaled drawings. The essence of sketching is simple: draw whatever pops into your mind, and revise as you go until you find a design you like best. With practice you will find sketching to be fun Project Engineering Standard PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAMS (P&ID) (PROJECT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS) Page 8 of 146 Rev: 01 Feb 2011 b. Title block sizes and drawing dimensions shall be as follows: Drawing Dimensions (mm × mm) Title Block Size (Including Revisi on Table) Width (mm) × Length (mm) A0 = 841 × 1189 180 × 19

Engineering Graphics and Design 3. Human rights, inclusivity, environmental and social justice The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 - 12 (General) seeks to promote human rights, inclusitivity, and through the use of appropriate assessment instruments NASA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING HANDBOOK viii Preface S ince the initial writing of NASA/SP-6105 in 1995 and the following revision (Rev 1) in 2007, systems engineering as a discipline at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undergone rapid and continued evolution. Changes include using Model-Based Systems Engineering to improv 2/20/2006 Page 3 Optical Drawing Standards The two standards that are of greatest interest are: - ISO 10110-X-1996 (E) -Optics and optical Instruments - Preparation of optical drawings for optical elements and systems - ISO 9211 - Optical coatings ISO 10110 is similar to ASME Y14.18M.There is no American standard equivalent to ISO 921 Professional drafting scales, engineering scales, and architectural scales can come in a number of sizes and models. The classic triangular scale is still a popular tool, and there are two models — one for architects and one for engineers

MECHANICAL DRAFTING 5 K to 12 - Technology and Livelihood Education Assembly drawing - a drawing that shows how different parts go together Compass - an instrument used when drawing arcs and circles Delivery receipt - a form that shows proof or receipt of goods or services Detailed drawing - a drawing showing a single part of a machine. Basics 18 Embedded Conduit Drawing : Basics 19 Instrument Loop Diagram : Basics - 1 Plant 1-Line . Basics - 2 7.2 kV One-Line . Basics - 3 4.16 kV One-Line . Basics - 4 600 V One-Line . Basics - 5 MCC One-Line . Basics - 6 Three-Line . Basics - 7 Three-Line . Basics - 8 MOV Block Diagram Basics - 8 MOV Elementary Diagram . Basics - The following drawings from index A of the drawing control should always be checked by the instrument engineering group responsible for the project. a) Process Flow Diagram(s) b) Piping and Instrument Diagram(s) 5 Required Instrumentation Documents Following is a complete list of instrumentation documents which are to be prepared, a drawings from given orthographic projections of an object. • Isometric drawing is important to engineering designers as the drawing shows clearly what that has been designed • It is also useful for equipment designers as they can easily interpret the method of construction of an object or equipment

Drawing Number Sheet Rev. PDF CAD Title Date; EXAMPLE DRAWINGS ---M6010-0: See Chapter 8 I&C Series D6000 Series: Process Flow Diagram Tower, DI, and Chilled Wate Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) use specific symbols to show the connectivity of equipment, sensors, and valves in a control system. These symbols can represent actuators, sensors, and controllers and may be apparent in most, if not all, system diagrams. P&IDs provide more detail than a process flow diagram with the exception of the. ENGINEERING DRAWING N1 (8090261) 25 November 2016 (X-Paper) 09:00-13:00 REQUIREMENTS: A2 drawing sheet Drawing instruments and calculators may be used. This question paper consists of 5 pages and 6 diagram sheets

Technical drawing supplies for precise results. Draftsmen typically transfer their designs to DIN A3 or DIN A4 paper format. The paper is usually secured in place using drawing boards. These are special scaled boards with integrated rulers and protractors to optimally support the precise drawing of parallel lines and geometric shapes Minor Survey Instruments - Box-sextant, Planimeter, Pantagraph, their working principles and uses. Reference Books: may take the form of written report, bills of quantities, datasheets, drawings and in land surveying maps and plan showing the features on the land. Engineering survey is used to acquire the required data for the. Front-end engineering and design (FEED) plays a critical role in preparing projects instrument lists, motor lists, I/O lists • Control narratives drawings • Installed base assessment and obsolescence study • Network design, security assessment.

localized crystallization. The drawing indication is 1/N x A where N is the number of maximum size defects allowed, A is the square root of the cross-sectional area of the maximum size defect allowed. If the tabular drawing format is used, this specification should be included with the optical material description Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics . Download or Read online Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics full in PDF, ePub and kindle. This book written by Frederick E. Giesecke and published by Peachpit Press which was released on 30 June 2016 with total pages 1032 Oct 3, 2018 - Explore SAM Iam's board Mechanical drawings / Blueprints / CAD Drawings, followed by 1215 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about blueprints, technical drawing, mechanical design A. Instrument sensing lines should be installed in accordance with the guidance presented in this appendix, design drawings, and installation details. The safety classification of piping for instrument tubing systems should be, as a minimum, consistent with the requirements of the process system to which the instrument is connected

Dessin technique — WikipédiaEngineering drawing (drafting instruments) lesson 2Vises: 15 Types of Vice | How to Use? [Picutures &PDF]PLANE TABLEDesign elements - HVAC equipmentProcess Flow Diagram Symbols

Typically a Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) drawing sets the fundamental requirements showing the pipe size, schematic of the equipment connections and primary branch connections. This is considered the starting point for Piping Engineering. Before routing and engineering the pipe, a design basis must be set. In this section the basi View 4(b) - Engineering Survey Instruments.pdf from CE 30160 at University of Notre Dame. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR HIGHWAYS Module IV OUTLINE Highway Survey and Location Surveying Methods, Tools, an 1. DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND SHEET LAYOUT. 1-1 INTRODUCTION. Drawing is an art of representing objects or forms on a surface chiefly by means of lines, using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques The methods of drawing ellipses illustrated above are all accurate. Approximate ellipses can be constructed as follows. Approximate method 1 Draw a rectangle with sides equal in length to the major and minor axes of the required ellipse. Ellipse by foci method. Divide distance OF1 into equal parts